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Fig. 4 | Molecular Cancer

Fig. 4

From: The cancer metabolic reprogramming and immune response

Fig. 4

The regulation of metabolic pathway in immune cells. a The activation of mTORC1 induced by various factors (cytokines, glucose and oxygen, etc.) up-regulates PD-L1 expression, and inhibits the Treg cells, NK cells and T cell infiltration. In addition, the growth factors-induced mTORC2 activation could increase AKT expression and affect the glutamine metabolism, ultimately causing the ICIs (immune checkpoint inhibitors) resistance and promote the cancer growth and development. b AMPK activation enhances the uptake of fatty acids and glucose via FAT/CD36 and GLUT4 respectively. Meanwhile, the activation of AMPK increases the fatty acids oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria to elevate the intracellular ATP level. Ultimately, these alterations commonly affect the functions of immune cells, such as inhibiting Treg cells differentiation and function, decreasing CD4+ T cell activity, inducing MDSC cells (marrow-derived suppressor cells) and elevating the secretion of IL-17, IL-1, and IL-18, which ultimately lead to the immunosuppression

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