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Table 1 Functions and subcellular localizations of m6A modification regulators (Writers, Erasers and Readers)

From: The m6A RNA methylation regulates oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell malignant transformation and carcinogenesis

Regulators Effectors Cellular localization Role
Writers Methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) Nucleus Catalytic subunit of m6A methyltransferase complex
Methyltransferase-like 14
(METTL14)
Nucleus Catalytic subunit of m6A methyltransferase complex
Methyltransferase-like 16
(METTL16)
Nucleus Independent Methyltransferase
Wilms’ tumour 1-associating protein (WTAP) Nucleus Enhancer of m6A methylation efficiency of methyltransferase complex
RNA binding motifs protein 15 (RBM15) Nucleus Facilitates recruitment of methyltransferase complex on target RNA
RNA binding motifs protein 15B (RBM15B) Nucleus Facilitates recruitment of methyltransferase complex on target RNA
Vir-like m6A methyltransferase associated (VIRMA)/KIAA1429 Nucleus Scaffolding protein for WTAP, HAKAI and ZC3H13 to facilitate binding with catalytic subunits
HAKAI Nucleus Facilitates methyltransferase complex RNA binding
Zinc finger CCCH domain-containing protein 13 (ZC3H13) Nucleus Facilitates methyltransferase complex RNA binding
Erasers Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) Nucleus m6A demethylase of mRNAs and lncRNAs or other noncoding RNAs
AlkB homologue5 (ALKBH5) Nucleus m6A demethylase of mRNAs and lncRNAs or other noncoding RNAs
AlkB homologue3 (ALKBH3) Cytoplasm tRNA-specific m6A demethylase
Readers YTH domain family
proteins 1–3 (YTHDF1–3)
Cytoplasm Facilitates mRNA translation (YTHDF1, YTHDF3)
mRNAs degradation (YTHDF2, YTHDF3)
YTH domain-containing
protein 1–2 (YTHDC1–2)
Nucleus (YTHDC1)
Cytoplasm (YTHDC2)
Regulates the splicing (YTHDC1)
Context-dependent mRNA translation or degradation (YTHDC2)
Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) Cytoplasm Cap-independent mRNA translation
Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1–3 (IGF2BP1–3) Cytoplasm Protect mRNA transcripts from degradation in stress condition
mRNA alternative splicing
Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNPC) Nucleus Binds and controls processing of nascent RNA
Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1) Nucleus mRNA splicing and miRNA maturation