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Fig. 2 | Molecular Cancer

Fig. 2

From: The roles of tumor-derived exosomes in altered differentiation, maturation and function of dendritic cells

Fig. 2

Tumor-derived exosomes inhibit maturation of dendritic cells. Exosomal galectin-9 can interact with its cognate TIM-3 receptors on DCs and inhibit antigen-sensing by them. The expression of CD47 on TDEs inhibits their phagocytosis by immune cells and improves their retention in the circulation. Exosomal S100A9 downmodulates the maturation of DCs and decrease the expression of co-stimulatory CD83, CD86, IL-12 and IL-15 by DCs. Tumor exosomes induce DCs to express TGF-β, which further increases TGF-β expression in an autocrine loop, and robustly inhibits anti-tumor immunity. Higher levels of glycolytic enzymes detected on TDEs can impair DCs maturation by increasing ATP and lactate levels In TME

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