Skip to main content

Table 1 The content of tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) and their effects on developmental stages of DCs

From: The roles of tumor-derived exosomes in altered differentiation, maturation and function of dendritic cells

Exosome content Mechanism of Action Ref
Inhibition of DCs Differentiation
 Cox-2, PGE2, TGF-b1, IL-6, HSP-70, and HSP-72 Promoting the polarization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), mainly through the STAT-3 pathway [24,25,26,27,28,29, 31,32,33, 35,36,37,38]
 Glycolytic Enzymes Increasing ATP and lactic acid levels and enhancing MDSCs population [18, 42,43,44,45]
 HLA-G Blocking monocyte-derived DCs differentiation [39]
Inhibition of DCs Maturation
 Galectin-9 and TIM-3 Interacting with TIM-3 on DCs and reducing nucleic acid sensing [51,52,53]
 CD-47 Reducing phagocytosis by interacting with SIRP-a on DCs [54,55,56,57,58,59,60]
 S100A9 Downregulating CD83, CD86, IL-12 and IL-15 expression levels [63,64,65,66,67]
 TGF-b1 Induction of TGF-b1 secretion by DCs [9, 68, 73, 74]
 Lactate dehydrogenase Increasing ATP and lactate levels in tumor microenvironment [43,44,45, 75, 76]
Inhibition of DCs Function
 STAT3 activators Reducing the levels of MHC and CD83 and CD86 molecules [31, 34, 80]
 PD-L1 Inducing PD-1 expression and transferring of negative signals [12, 82,83,84,85,86,87,88]
 IDO - Decreasing the levels of CD40, CD83, CD86 and MHC molecules
- Degrading tryptophan into kynurenine
- Kynurenine-meditated increase of IDO expression on DCs
[93, 95,96,97]
 L-arginase (ARG1) -Impedes the DCs-mediated T cells priming in regional lymph nodes
- Reduces arginine level in tumor microenvironment, resulting in lower expression of MHC molecules
[24, 98,99,100]
 PGE and TGF-b1 Increasing CD73 expression on DCs, resulting in increased levels of inhibitory adenosine in tumor site [16, 24, 104, 105]
 Lipids Accumulating lipids in DCs, interfering with their antigen-presentation function [106,107,108,109]