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Table 2 Exosomes related with lung cancer metastasis by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration

From: Tumor-associated exosomes promote lung cancer metastasis through multiple mechanisms

Cancer type Exosomes source Related genes or pathway Tissues and/or cells Experimental data Functions Refs
Promote proliferation and migration
 Lung cancer Cell culture fluid Wnt3a/β-catenin Lung cancer cells Exosomes containing high levels of Wnt3a activate β-catenin signaling Promote proliferation [27]
 Lung cancer (NSCLC) Serum circSATB2; miR-326 Lung cancer cells Regulate FSCN1 expression positively via miR-326 and be transferred by exosomes Promote proliferation, migration and invasion [28]
 Lung cancer (NSCLC) Cell culture fluid HIF-1α/COX-2; miR-135b; miR-210 Lung cancer cells Hypoxia enhance numbers of exosomes and up-regulate of exosomal HIF-1α/COX-2 and expression of exosomal miR-135b and miR-210 Promote proliferation and migration [29]
 Lung cancer (NSCLC) Serum miR-660-5p; KLF9 Lung cancer cells miR-660-5p in exosome may control NSCLC proliferation, viability, and metastasis by targeting KLF9 Promote proliferation and migration [30]
 Lung cancer Serum miR-96; LMO7 Lung cancer patients Exosomal miR-96 promotes lung cancer progression by targeting LMO7. Promote proliferation, migration, and drug resistance [31]
 Lung cancer (adenocarcinoma) Cell culture fluid Wnt5b PANC-1 cells Exosomes activate Wnt5b signaling in CHO cells and stimulate migration and proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 Promote proliferation and migration [32]
Promote invasion and or migration
 Lung cancer (Adenocarcinoma) Lung cancer TNF-β; TNF-α; IL-6; IL-8; IL-10; CD163; iNOS; MMP2; MMP9 Lung cancer cells Exosomes derived from lung adenocarcinoma cells can activate macrophages, increase MMP2 and MMP9 levels, and enhance the invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Promote invasion [33]
 Lung cancer (NSCLC) Pleura exudates GGT-1; LTC4; CysLT1 Lung cancer cells Exosomes contain GGT-1 and transform exogenous LTC4 to pro-tumorigenic LTD4, and elevate the level of endogenous CysLT Promote survival and migration [34]
 Lung cancer BALF E-cadherin Lung cancer cells In exosomes from lung cancer, BALF promote the migration and invasion by carrying E-cadherin Promote migration and invasion [35]
 Lung cancer (SCLC) Cell culture fluid FECR1; FECR2; miR584-3p; ROCK1 Lung cancer cells FECR1 and FECR2 up-regulated in SCLC tissues; exosomal FECRs promotes lung cancer cells metastasis through the miR584-ROCK1 pathway Promote invasion and migration [36]
 Lung cancer Serum miR-106b; PTEN; MMP-2; MMP-9 Lung cancer patients Exosomal miR-106b target PTEN, increase the MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and promote lung cancer cell migration and invasion Promote invasion and migration [37]
 Lung cancer Cell culture fluid ALDOA; ALDH3A1 Lung cancer cells Exosomes carrying ALDOA and ALDH3A1 from irradiated lung cancer cells enhance migration and invasion of recipient cells by accelerating glycolysis Promote invasion and migration [38]
 Lung cancer Cell culture fluid MMP3; MMP9 Adipocytes cells Adipocyte-derived exosomes promote lung cancer cells metastasis by increasing MMP9 activity via transferring MMP3 to lung cancer cells Promote invasion and migration [39]
Promote proliferation and or inhibit apoptosis
 Lung cancer (NSCLC) Cell culture fluid ASMA Lung cancer cells; Human lung fibroblasts cell line HLF1 cells Promote cell proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis in both normal lung fibroblasts and NSCLC cells by delivering ASMA Promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis [40]
 Lung cancer (NSCLC) Cell culture fluid MALAT-1 Lung cancer cells Serum exosome-derived long noncoding RNA MALAT-1 promotes the tumor growth and migration, and prevents tumor cells from apoptosis Promote proliferation and migration; Inhibit apoptosis [41]
 Lung cancer (SCLC) HBMECs S100A16 Lung cancer cells Elevation of S100A16 prevent the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and enhance resistance to apoptosis of SCLC cells Inhibit apoptosis [42]
 Lung cancer Macrophages cell culture fluid Let-7a-5p; BCL2L1; PI3Kγ Macrophages cells Exogenous let-7a-5p induces lung cancer cell death through BCL2L1-mediated PI3Kγ signaling pathway Promote autophagic cell death [43]
Regulate or inhibit migration
 Lung cancer Cell culture fluid TGF-β; lnc-MMP2-2 Lung cancer cells TGF-β-mediated exosomal lnc-MMP2-2 might regulate the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells into the vasculature by promoting MMP2 expression Regulate migration [44]
 Lung cancer Cell culture fluid TGF-β; IL-10 Lung cancer cells NCI-H1688 Exosomes derived from cancer cells regulate the cellular migration of tumor cells through TGF-β and IL-10 Regulate migration [45]
 Lung cancer (NSCLC) Cell culture fluid PEDF; THBS1 Lung cancer cells Exosomes from PEDF-treated cells contain THBS1, which inhibit cytoskeletal remodeling and exosome-induced lung cancer cell motility, migration, and invasion Inhibit invasion and migration [46]
  1. Abbreviations: ALDH3A1 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1, ALDOA Aldolase A, ASMA Alpha-smooth muscle actin, BALF Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, BCL2L1 B-cell lymphoma-2, CHO Chinese hamster ovary, COX-2 Cyclooxygenase-2, CysLT1 Cysteinyl leukotriene 1, FECR FLI1 exonic circular RNAs, FSCN1 Fascin homolog 1, actin-bundling protein 1, GGT-1 γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1, HBMECs Human brain microvascular endothelial cells, HIF-1α Hypoxia inducible factor-1, IL Interleukin, iNOS Inducible nitric-oxide synthase, KLF9 Kriippel-like factor9, LMO7 LIM-domain only protein 7, LT Leukotriene, MALAT-1 Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1, MMP Matrix metalloproteinase, NSCLC Non-small cell lung cancer, ROCK1 Rho Associated Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 1 gene, PANC-1 Human pancreatic cancer cell line, PEDF Pigment epithelium-derived factor, PI3Kγ PI-3 kinase gamma, PTEN Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten, SCLC Small cell lung cancer, TGF Transforming growth factor, THBS1 Thrombospondin 1, TNF Tumor necrosis factor