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Table 4 Exosomes related with lung cancer metastasis by other mechanisms

From: Tumor-associated exosomes promote lung cancer metastasis through multiple mechanisms

Cancer type Exosomes source Related genes or pathway Tissues and/or cells Experimental data Function Refs
Lung cancer Lung cancer cells TRIM59; NLRP3;, IL-1β Lung cancer cells; macrophages Lung cancer cells-derived exosomal TRIM59 converts macrophages via regulating ABHD5 proteasomal degradation, to activate NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway to promote lung cancer progression by IL-1β secretion Promote lung cancer progression [58]
Lung cancer (NSCLC) Lung cancer cells AREG; EGFR; RANKL Lung cancer cells NSCLC-exosomes, containing AREG, induce EGFR pathway activation in pre-osteoclasts that in turn causes an increased expression of RANKL Promote bone metastasis [59]
Lung cancer Cell culture fluid COX-2 Lung cancer cells; THP-1 COX-2 expression is induced by celecoxib treatment in lung cancer cells and is transferred to neighbor cells via exosomes Involve in the interaction with neighbor cells [60]
Lung cancer Lung cancer cells lncRNA Lung cancer cells Lung cancer exosomes initiate global long non-coding RNA changes in mesenchymal stem cells to inhibit MSCs osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation Tumor exosomes contribute to interactions between MSCs and tumor cells [61]
Lung cancer (NSCLC) Serum miR-222-3p; SOCS3 Gemcitabine- resistant A549 cells Exosomic miR-222-3p enhances the proliferation, gemcitabine resistance, migration, invasion, and anti-anoikis of parental sensitive cells by directly targeting the promoter of SOCS3 Enhance proliferation and metastasis [62]
Lung cancer Serum Exosomal miR-21 and miR-155 Nude mouse model with lung cancer Exosomal miRNAs, miR-21 and miR-155, were significantly upregulated in recurrent tumors compared to primary tumors Exosomal miRNAs as biomarkers of recurrent lung cancer [63]
Lung cancer Plasma; Lung cancer cells   Lung cancer cells and lung cancer patients Including stage I and II cancer patients, plasma exosomes of 90.7% patients had higher similarity to lung cancer cell exosomes than the average of the healthy controls. Such similarity was proportional to the progression of cancer Similarity between plasma and lung cancer cell relates to progression of cancer [64]
Lung cancer (NSCLC) Plasma   Lung cancer patients Plasma exosome level correlates with tumor stage and may serve as a prognostic factor for NSCLC Plasma exosome correlate with tumor stage [65]
Lung cancer (NSCLC) Plasma Exosomal Tim-3 and Galectin-9 Lung cancer patients High levels of Exo-Tim-3 and Exo-Galectin-9 were all positively correlated with larger tumor size, advanced stages, and more distant metastasis Correlate with metastasis [66]
Lung cancer (NSCLC) Serum Exo-GAS5 NSCLC patients Patients with NSCLC with larger tumor size and advanced TNM classification showed lower Exo-GAS5 expression Exo-GAS5 expression is associated with advanced TNM classification [67]
  1. Abbreviations: ABHD5 Abhydrolase domain containing 5, AREG Amphiregulin, COX-2 Cyclooxygenase-2, EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor, GASS Growth arrest-specific transcript 5, IL Interleukin, MSCs Mesenchymal stem cells, NLRP3 NOD-LRR-and pyrin domain-containing protein 3, NSCLC Non-small cell lung cancer, RANKL Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor-κ B Ligand, SERS Surface-enhanced Raman scattering, SOCS3 Suppressors-of-cytokine-signaling 3, THP-1 Human myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells, TNM T: extent of the primary tumor; N: lymph node involvement; M: metastatic disease, TRIM59 Tripartite motif-containing 59