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Table 1 Writers, erasers and readers of RNA m6A modification

From: Crosstalk between N6-methyladenosine modification and circular RNAs: current understanding and future directions

Category Factors Roles Refs
Writers METTL3 m6A catalytic subunit [14, 15]
  METTL14 Forms heterodimer with METTL3 to stabilize METTL3 and assist recognizing the subtract [14, 18]
  METTL16 m6A catalytic subunit [19]
  METTL5 Ribosome 18S m6A methyltransferase [20, 21]
  TRMT112 Forms heterodimeric complex with METTL5 as a methyltransferase activator to stabilize METTL5 [21]
  ZCCHC4 Ribosome 28S m6A methyltransferase [22, 23]
  HAKAI Essential member of the MTC [24]
  WTAP Promotse m6A methyltransferase activity and localization in nuclear speckles [25]
  VIRMA Binds the MTC and recruit it to specific RNA region [26]
  RBM15/15B Binds the MTC and recruit it to specific RNA site [27]
  ZC3H13 Promotes nuclear localization of MTC to modulate m6A in the nucleus [28]
Erasers FTO Eliminates m6A by oxidation [14,15,16,17,18]
  ALKBH5 Eliminates m6A by oxidation [14,15,16,17,18]
Readers YTHDF1 Facilitates the ribosome assembly of m6A-mRNAs and interacts with the initiation factor to promote translation; cooperates with YTHDF2 and YTHDF3 to mediate degradation of m6A-mRNAs [29, 30]
  YTHDF2 Reduces m6A-mRNAs stability; stabilize m6A-mRNAs specifically in cancer stem cells; cooperates with YTHDF1 and YTHDF3 to mediate degradation of m6A-mRNAs [29,30,31]
  YTHDF3 Cooperates with YTHDF1 and YTHDF2 to mediate degradation of m6A-mRNAs [30, 32]
  YTHDC1 Promotes RNA splicing and translocation; facilitates the decay of m6A-modified chromosome-associated regulatory RNAs; together with its target m6A-RNAs to regulate chromatin modification and retrotransposon repression; regulate histone methylation [33,34,35,36,37,38]
  YTHDC2 Facilitates the translation and decrease the abundance of m6A-RNAs; has 3′-5′ RNA helicase activity and decrease the stability of m6A-mRNAs [39,40,41]
  HNRNPC/G Responsible for pre-mRNA processing and affect the alternative splicing of target m6A-mRNAs [42,43,44]
  HNRNPA2B1 Binds to m6A-containing pri-miRNAs to promote pri-miRNA processing; may regulate mRNA splicing by binding to m6A-containing pre-mRNAs; facilitates m6A modification and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of mRNAs [45, 46]
  IGF2BP1/2/3 Regulates m6A-RNAs stability, subcellular localization and translation [47,48,49]
  EIF3 Facilitates translation of m6A-mRNAs by recruiting the 43S complex [50, 51]
  PRRC2A Enhances m6A-mRNAs stability [52]
  SND1 Enhances m6A-RNAs stability [53]