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Table 1 Isoform-specific functions of BRD4

From: The role of distinct BRD4 isoforms and their contribution to high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma pathogenesis

Isoform Function Ref.
  Serves as transcriptional co-activator [41, 42]
BRD4 isoform long (BRD4-L) Promotes RNA transcription via RNA Polymerase II pause-release [41,42,43]
  Has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity [44]
  Maintains higher-order chromatin structure [38]
  Induces expression of genes involved in the DNA repair pathway NHEJ [15, 16]
  Provides structural support for NHEJ protein complex [15, 16, 45]
  Regulates transcription of primary response genes [17]
  Regulates transcription of antioxidant genes via interaction with NRF2 [18]
  Indirectly induces generation of ROS via KEAP1-NRF2 pathway [46]
  Has transformative potential in epithelial ovarian cells [10]
  Predominantly binds to lysine-acetylated histones [38]
BRD4 isoform short (BRD4-S) Promotes chromatin compaction [38]
  Incorporates BRD4 condensation into the chromatin [39]
  Sustains transcription of proliferative genes in cancer cells via phase separation [39]
  Inhibits DNA damage repair [15, 47]
  Promotes oncogenic properties in cancer [10, 28, 30]
  1. Abbreviations: NHEJ non-homologous end joining; ROS reactive oxygen species