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Table 3 Epigenetic regulation of key molecules in immune and cancer cells

From: Epigenetic modulation of antitumor immunity for improved cancer immunotherapy

Molecule Cell types Epigenetic regulation Reference
Granzyme B CD8+ T cells H3K9Ac at the promoter increased ~ 100-fold within 12 h stimulation [184]
IFN-γ CD8+ T cells
(naïve and memory)
Promoter DNA methylation downregulates transcription in naïve cells, while demethylation happens rapidly in memory cells leading to IFN-γ expression [177]
IL-2 CD8+ T cells 1. The promoter-enhancer region is demethylated following T cell activation.
2.Activated Ag-specific CD8+ T cells exhibit rapid DNA demethylation at the I-2 locus and is maintained through memory development
IL-12 T, NK and macrophages H3K4me3 up-, H3K27me2 down-regulate IL12p35 and IL12p40 promoters. [188]
FoxP3 Treg DNA methylation of the CpG island in the enhancer region dictates its expression in T cell subsets. [167, 169]
STING Cancer cells Promoter hypermethylation of cGAS and STING genes mediated their coordinate transcriptional silencing, and DNA methylation inhibitor can restore their expression. [189]
PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, LAG-3, TIGIT and PD-L1 Cancer and stromal cells DNA methylation and H4K9 and H3K27 trimethylation are associated with silenced status [190,191,192]