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Table 4 Exosomes as biomarkers for cancer liquid biopsy

From: Exosomes as a new frontier of cancer liquid biopsy

Cancer types Exosome sources Sample volume Exosomal biomarker Clinical samples Diagnostic performance Clinical significance Ref.
Gastric Cancer Serum   lnc HOTTIP 126 GC patients; 120 healthy donors AUC = 0.827 Early diagnosis [191]
Serum   miR-15b-3p 108 GC patients; 108 healthy donors AUC of 0.820; specificity of 80.6%; sensitivity of 74.1% Early diagnosis [192]
HCC Plasma 100 μL AFP; GPC3; ALB; APOH; FABP1; FGB; FGG; AHSG; RBP4; TF mRNA 36 HCC patients; 26 Cirrhosis AUC of 0.87; sensitivity of 93.8%; specificity of 74.5% Early diagnosis [61]
Serum 500 μL miRNA-21; lncRNA-A TB 72 HCC patients Higher in HCC patients Prognostic significance [189]
Serum   miR-21   Higher in HCC patients Early diagnosis [193]
Serum 250 μL miR-92b 28 non-HCC; 28 HCC patients without recurrence; 43 HCC patients with early recurrenc Sensitivity of 85.7%; specificity of 86.0%; AUC = 0.925 Early recurrence diagnosis after LDLT [194]
Serum 100 μL CEA; GPC-3 and PD-L1 12 HCC patients; 12 hepatitis B; 6 healthy donors Higher in HCC patients Early diagnosis and progression monitoring [112]
PDAC Plasma 500 μL miRNA-10b 3 PDAC Patients; 3 CP Patients; 3 healthy donors Higher in PDAC patients Early diagnosis and progression monitoring [173]
Plasma   miRNA-10b PDAC patients; CP patients and healthy donors Higher in PDAC patients Early diagnosis [195]
Mouse plasma samples   miR-3970-5p 9 healthy donors; 9 PanIN patients; 9 PDAC patients Accuracy of 65% Early diagnosis [196]
Serum 250 μL Glypican1 192 patients; 100 healthy donors Sensitivity of 100%; specificity of 100%; positive predictive value of 100%; negative predictive value of 100%; AUC of 1.0 Early diagnosis [38]
Plasma 25 μL Glypican1 20 PDAC patients; 7 benign pancreatic disease; 11 healthy donors 99% sensitivity and 82% specificity Stage classification [197]
Serum 5 μL EpCAM, Glypican1   90% accuracy for pancreatic cancer or normal pancreatic epithelial cell lines; 87 and 90% predictive accuracy for HC and EPC individual samples Early diagnosis [198]
Serum 2 μL MIF 4 patients at stage 1 ~ 2; 37 patients at stage 3 Discriminatory sensitivity of 95.7% Stage classification [199]
CRC Serum   hsa-circ-0004771 179 patients; 45 healthy donors AUC of 0.86, 0.88 to differentiate stage I/II CRC patients and CRC patients from HCs Early diagnosis [200]
Plasma 25 μL Epcam-CD63 59 cancer patients; 20 healthy donors AUC of 0.96 Early diagnosis; prognosis prediction [125]
NSCLC Plasma   miRNA-21; miRNA-139; miRNA-200; miRNA-378 5 patients; 5 healthy donors Higher in NSCLC patients Early diagnosis [123]
Plasma 1 mL miRNA-21 NSCLC patients; recurrence of NSCLC patients; healthy individuals Higher in NSCLC patients Early diagnosis and drug resistance in advanced cancers [201]
Plasma 1.5 mL CD63; EGFR; EpCAM 4 patients; 4 treated patients; 4 healthy donors Higher in NSCLC patients Early diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation [159]
Serum 50 μL PD-L1 5 patients; 4 healthy donors Higher in NSCLC patients Early diagnosis [132]
Serum 4 μL PD-L1 7 patients at stage 1 ~ 2; 10 patients at stage 3 ~ 4; 12 healthy controls AUC of 0.97 Early diagnosis [90]
Breast Cancer Plasma   EpCAM 6 BC patients; 3 healthy donors Higher in BC patients Early diagnosis [71]
Plasma   EpCAM; HER2 10 BC patients; 5 healthy donors AUC of 1; AUC of 1 Early diagnosis [134]
Serum 3.6 μL EpCAM 20 BC patients; 10 healthy donors AUC BC versus HD = 0.99; AUC HER2+ BC versus HER2– BC = 0.94 Cancer classification [202]
Serum   PD-L1 7 patients with metastatic; 8 patients without metastatic; 6 healthy donors Higher in BC patients Prognosis prediction and progression monitoring [114]
Blood   CA153 104 BC patients; 100 breast hyperplasia patients and 100 healthy controls Higher in BC patients Differential diagnosis [203]
Serum   miR-21; miR-222; miR-200c Luminal, HER2+, and TN breast cancer patients Higher in BC patients Classification of molecular subtypes of breast cancer [204]
Plasma 1 μL CA153; EpCAM 36 MBC patients before salvage treatment; 21 NMBC patients before surgical therapy; 66 age-matched healthy donors AUPRC CA153 = 0.9286 Differential diagnosis of BC and healthy donors [69]
AUPRC EpCAM = 0.9709
Plasma 1 μL CA153; CA125; CEA; HER2; EGFR; PSMA; EpCAM; VEG 36 MBC patients before salvage treatment; 21 NMBC patients before surgical therapy; 66 age-matched healthy donors AUPRC of 0.9826 Differential diagnosis of BC and healthy donors [69]
Plasma 1 μL CA153; CA125; CEA; HER2; EGFR; PSMA; EpCAM; VEG 36 MBC patients before salvage treatment; 21 NMBC patients before surgical therapy; 66 age-matched healthy donors AUPRC of 0.8672 Differential diagnosis of MBC and NMBC [69]
Plasma samples   EpCAM Various breast cancer patients and healthy individuals Higher in BC patients Early diagnosis [115]
Prostate Cancer Urine 50-150 mL miR-196a; miR-143-3p; miR-196-5p; miR-501-3p; 28 PCA patients; 19 healthy donors AUC miR-196a = 0.92 Early diagnosis [205]
AUC miR143-3p = 0.72
AUC miR196-5p = 0.73
AUC miR501-3p = 0.69
Plasma 750 μL miR-217; miR-23b-3p 10 patients; 10 healthy donors Higher in PCA patients Early diagnosis [206]
Serum 400 μL EphrinA2 50 PCA patients; 21 BPH patients; 20 healthy donors AUC of 0.7666 Early diagnosis; distinguish PCA from BPH patients [207]
Serum 25 μL EpCAM and PSMA 10 PCA patients; 5 healthy donors Higher in PCA patients Early diagnosis [127]
Serum   TUBB3 mRNA 52 mCRPC patients Higher in PCA patients Prognosis [208]
Ovarian Cancer Ascites   EpCAM; CD24 20 patients; 10 healthy donors Higher in OVCA patients Early diagnosis [116]
Plasma 2 mL CA125; EpCAM; CD24 15 patients; 5 healthy donors AUC CA125 = 1.0 Early diagnosis [74]
AUC EpCAM = 1.0
AUC CD24 = 0.91
Plasma 20 μL CD24; EpCAM; FRα 20 OVCA patients; 10 non-cancer controls AUC CD24 = 1.0 Early diagnosis [165]
AUC EpCAM = 1.0
AUC FRα = 0.995
Plasma 200 μL miR-4732-5p 21 healthy controls and 34 epithelial ovarian cancer patients AUC miR-4732-5p = 0.889 Early diagnosis [209]
  1. ALB Albumin, APOH Apolipoprotein H, AUPRC Area under the Precision-Recall Curves, FABP1 Fatty acid binding protein 1, FGB Fibrinogen beta chain, FGG Fibrinogen gamma chain, AHSG Alpha 2-HS glycoprotein, RBP4 Retinol binding protein 4, TF Transferrin, LDLT Living donor liver transplantation, CP Chronic pancreatitis, PanIN Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, PanIN Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, MIF Migration inhibitory factor