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  1. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) is a potent inhibitor of epithelial cell growth, thus playing an important role in tissue homeostasis. Most carcinoma cells exhibit a reduced sensitivity for TGFβ1 mediated g...

    Authors: Martin P Kracklauer, Christian Schmidt and Guido M Sclabas

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:28

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in Molecular Cancer 2004 3:2

  2. Cervical cancer (CC), a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, has been causally linked to genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although a host of genetic alterations have been ide...

    Authors: Gopeshwar Narayan, Hugo Arias-Pulido, Sanjay Koul, Hernan Vargas, Fang F Zhang, Jeannine Villella, Achim Schneider, Mary B Terry, Mahesh Mansukhani and Vundavalli V Murty

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  3. Highly aggressive, rapidly growing tumors are exposed to hypoxia or even anoxia which occurs as a consequence of inadequate blood supply. Both hypoxia and consecutive hypoxia/reoxygenation exert a variety of i...

    Authors: Manfred Kunz and Saleh M Ibrahim

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:23

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  4. SLC/CCL21, normally expressed in high endothelial venules and in T cell zones of spleen and lymph nodes, strongly attracts T cells and dendritic cells (DC). We have previously shown that SLC/CCL21-mediated ant...

    Authors: Sherven Sharma, Seok-Chul Yang, Sven Hillinger, Li X Zhu, Min Huang, Raj K Batra, Jeff F Lin, Marie D Burdick, Robert M Strieter and Steven M Dubinett

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:22

    Content type: Research

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  5. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) plays an important role in late-stage carcinogenesis by stimulating invasive behavior of cancer cells, promoting neo-angiogenesis and by helping cancer cells to escape surve...

    Authors: Ralph K Lindemann, Alfred Nordheim and Jürgen Dittmer

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:20

    Content type: Research

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  6. Ras is an area of intensive biochemical and genetic studies and characterizing downstream components that relay ras-induced signals is clearly important. We used a systematic approach, based on DNA microarray ...

    Authors: Sophie Vasseur, Cédric Malicet, Ezequiel L Calvo, Claude Labrie, Patrice Berthezene, Jean Charles Dagorn and Juan Lucio Iovanna

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:19

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  7. p14ARF is a protein product of the alternative reading frame of the human INK4a locus. It functions as a tumor suppressor protein. p14ARF suppresses growth through p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways.

    Authors: Elena Kashuba, Karin Mattsson, George Klein and Laszlo Szekely

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:18

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. Molecular Cancer is as a forum for cutting edge cancer-related papers. This editorial will answer frequently asked question about this open-access and on-line journal as well as its publisher BioMed Central.

    Authors: Karsta Lüttich, Christian Schmidt and Guido M Sclabas

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:16

    Content type: Editorial

    Published on:

  9. Cancer of the exocrine pancreas represents the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the Western population with an average survival after diagnosis of 3 to 6 months and a five-year survival rate under 5%. Ou...

    Authors: Gunter Schneider and Roland M Schmid

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:15

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  10. Pancreatic cancer remains a challenging disease with an overall cumulative 5-year survival rate below 1%. The process of cancer initiation, progression and metastasis is still not understood well. Invasion and...

    Authors: Shereen Keleg, Peter Büchler, Roman Ludwig, Markus W Büchler and Helmut Friess

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:14

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  11. The concept of pancreatic cancer origin is controversial. Acinar, ductal or islet cells have been hypothesized as the cell of origin. The pros and cons of each of these hypotheses are discussed. Based on the w...

    Authors: Parviz M Pour, Krishan K Pandey and Surinder K Batra

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:13

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  12. The incidence and mortality of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are nearly coincident having a five-year survival of less than 5%. Enormous advances have been made in our knowledge of the molecular alterations common...

    Authors: Patrick S Moore, Stefania Beghelli, Giuseppe Zamboni and Aldo Scarpa

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:7

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  13. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by poor prognosis, because of late diagnosis and lack of response to chemo- and/or radiation therapies. Resistance to apoptosis mainly causes this insensitivity to co...

    Authors: Sabine Westphal and Holger Kalthoff

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:6

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  14. About 80% of pancreatic cancer patients have glucose intolerance or frank diabetes. This observation has led to the following two hypotheses: i. pancreatic cancer causes the associated diabetes and ii. the condit...

    Authors: Feng Wang, Margery Herrington, Jörgen Larsson and Johan Permert

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:4

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  15. Glucocorticoids inhibit hepatocellular proliferation and modulate the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes via mechanisms involving the glucocorticoid receptor. Glucocorticoids also produce a recept...

    Authors: Jihan A Youssef and Mostafa Z Badr

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a common malignancy in children. There are two major types of rhabdomyosarcomas, the embryonal and the alveolar, differing in cytogenetic and morphologic features. The alveolar type of rhab...

    Authors: Peilin Zhang, Kunjan S Bhakta, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Robert O Newbury, James R Feramisco and Jean Y Wang

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in Molecular Cancer 2003 2:17

  17. Gleevec (aka STI571, Imatinib) is a recently FDA approved anti-tumor drug for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Gleevec binds specifically to BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase and inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity. It cr...

    Authors: Peilin Zhang, Wei Yi Gao, Steven Turner and Barbara S Ducatman

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2003 2:1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Mitochondria play important roles in cellular energy metabolism, free radical generation, and apoptosis. Defects in mitochondrial function have long been suspected to contribute to the development and progress...

    Authors: Jennifer S Carew and Peng Huang

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2002 1:9

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  19. Human male germ cell tumors (GCTs) arise from undifferentiated primordial germ cells (PGCs), a stage in which extensive methylation reprogramming occurs. GCTs exhibit pluripotentality and are highly sensitive ...

    Authors: Sanjay Koul, Jane Houldsworth, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Alessia Donadio, James M McKiernan, Victor E Reuter, George J Bosl, Raju S Chaganti and Vundavalli V Murty

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2002 1:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Sex steroid hormones, estrogen, progesterone and androgen, play pivotal roles in sex differentiation and development, and in reproductive functions and sexual behavior. Studies have shown that sex steroid horm...

    Authors: Xiuhua Gao, Brian W Loggie and Zafar Nawaz

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2002 1:7

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  21. The interaction of nuclear and mitochondrial genes is an essential feature in maintenance of normal cellular function. Of 82 structural subunits that make up the oxidative phosphorylation system in the mitocho...

    Authors: Robert Delsite, Sushant Kachhap, Ramaswamy Anbazhagan, Edward Gabrielson and Keshav K Singh

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2002 1:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. PGE-2 is constitutively produced by many non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and its immunosuppressive effects have been linked to altered immune responses in lung cancer. We asked whether elevated levels of p...

    Authors: Giovanna E Hidalgo, Li Zhong, Dennis E Doherty and Edward A Hirschowitz

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2002 1:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to ev...

    Authors: Ken Ohnishi, Ichiro Ota, Katsunari Yane, Akihisa Takahashi, Kazue Yuki, Mie Emoto, Hiroshi Hosoi and Takeo Ohnishi

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2002 1:4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. Previous studies have shown that the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p) exhibit frequent genetic changes in invasive cervical carcinoma (CC), and that these changes arise early during the carcinogenesis, in precan...

    Authors: Hugo Arias-Pulido, Gopeshwar Narayan, Hernan Vargas, Mahesh Mansukhani and Vundavalli VVS Murty

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2002 1:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. The active copy of the imprinted gene H19 is turned off by inappropriate methylation in several pediatric tumors including Wilms' Tumour and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. H19 controls in cis the linked Insulin-like...

    Authors: Catherine A Lynch, Benjamin Tycko, Timothy H Bestor and Colum P Walsh

    Citation: Molecular Cancer 2002 1:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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