Knockdown of CTGF expression inhibits the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. A. Cell migration assay. B. Cell invasion assay. Migration and invasion cells were fixed and stained, and representative fields were photographed. For quantification, the cells were counted in 10 random fields under a light microscope (×200). Triplicate assays were performed for each group of cells in invasion and migration assays, and the results are expressed as means ± SD. C. RT-QPCR was done for analysis the mRNA expression of MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 in the CTGF knockdown stable cell lines and control cells. Bars represent the mean ± SD of three experiments. D. The protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 were detected by Western blot. GAPDH served as protein loading control. E. Gelatin zymography analysis for the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. PSC1/PSC2+CM of SGC7901: PSC1 or PSC2 cells were incubated with conditioned medium (CM) of SGC7901.*P < 0.05 as compared to control (control is SGC7901).