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Table 1 Expression of RANKL, RUNX2, Smad 5 and p-Smad 5 in prostatic carcinoma and normal tissue microarray sections

From: Integrin αvβ3 and CD44 pathways in metastatic prostate cancer cells support osteoclastogenesis via a Runx2/Smad 5/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand signaling axis

Grade Cells RUNX2 Smad 5 p-Smad 5 RANKL
Normal prostatic epithelial cells and PCa adjacent to these cells (n = 26) Cancer cells appear normal Normal cells = 63.0 ± 8% Normal cells = 18.3 ± 6% Normal cells = <6% Normal cells = 22 ± 6.5%
PCa = 28% PCa = 33% PCa = 16 ± 6% PCa =12 ± 3.1%
Stromal cells <5% Stromal cells 8-10%   Stromal cells = <6%
Adenocarcinoma Grade 1 (n = 8) (Type: Malignant) Cells appear normal and well differentiated PCa = 60.7 ± 23% PCa = 56.4 ± 8%** PCa = 32 ± 5%** PCa = 42 ± 8.4%**
Stromal cells = <5% Stromal cells =8% Stromal cells = <5% Stromal cells =12 ± 2.82%
Grade 2 (n = 12) (Type: Malignant) Cells appear slightly different than normal PCa = 71.3 ± 20% PCa >63.3 ± 12%** PCa >59 ± 14%** PCa >46 ± 6.2%**
Stromal cells ~5-8% Stromal cells ~5% Stromal cells ~5% Stromal cells =10 ± 3.2%
Adenocarcinoma Grade 2–3 and 3 (n = 16) (Type:Malignant) Cells appear abnormal Stroma is less. PCa = 76 ± 8% PCa >72 ± 11%** PCa >78 ± 18%*** PCa = 65 ± 13%**
  1. Prostatic carcinoma and normal tissue microarray containing 12 cases/24 cores was used. Stainings were repeated two times. Immunohistochemistry was performed with antibody to RANKL, RUNX2, Smad 5 and phospho-Smad 5 (p-Smad5). **p <0.01 and ***p <0.001 staining intensity vs. normal cells.