Experimental validation of miR-193a as negative regulator of uPA in SKHep1C3 cells. (A) pre-miR-193a transfections in SKHep1C3 cells inhibited uPA protein expression and the enzymatic activity. (B) Anti-miR-193a transfection in SKHep1C3 cells led to up-regulation of uPA protein expression and the enzymatic activity up-regulation, *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 versus Lipofectamine in a t-Test analysis for unpaired comparison. (C) The dual luciferase assay shows that the site 2 was directly bound by miR-193a but the site 1 was not. pmiRGLO uPA S1 and pmiRGLO uPA S2 are the luciferase constructs expressing the predicted 3′ UTR mRNA uPA binding site 1 and site 2. The pmiRGLO uPA AS1 and pmiRGLO uPA AS2 are the constructs expressing the corresponding control antisense sequences, *p < 0.05 versus – miR-193a.