PDPN expression was heterogeneous in CAFs. (A) qRT-PCR showed variable PDPN expression in CAFs. The pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 expressed less PDPN mRNA than CAFs. (B) Flow cytometry showed 0.4–94% positivity rates for PDPN expression. Representative flow cytometry data for PDPN expression in CAF1 cells are shown (right). (C) Immunofluorescence staining for PDPN (green) and α-SMA (red) in CAF4. CAFs had spindle-shaped or stellate-like morphology and expressed α-SMA and PDPN. Original magnification × 100.