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Table 3 Summary of different metabolites between each stage of esophageal cancers and normal mucosae

From: 1H-NMR based metabonomic profiling of human esophageal cancer tissue

Metabolite Chemical shift (ppm) Normal vs II Normal vs III Normal vs IV
   VIPa p-valueb FCc VIPa p-valueb FCc VIPa p-valueb FCc
Amino acid           
Creatine 3.04 1.97 <0.0001 -1.71 1.97 <0.0001 -1.70 1.89 <0.0001 -1.91
  3.94 1.92 <0.0001 -1.71 1.90 <0.0001 -1.73 1.89 <0.0001 -1.92
NAA 2.6 2.06 0.001 1.59 1.25 <0.0001 1.84 1.17 0.0003 1.58
  2.02 1.39 <0.0001 1.63 1.90 <0.0001 1.61 1.95 <0.0001 1.81
Glutamate 2.05 1.77 <0.0001 1.34 1.50 <0.0001 1.28 1.77 <0.0001 1.39
  2.36 1.38 <0.0001 1.27 1.11 <0.0001 1.19 1.29 <0.0001 1.26
Glutamine 2.14          
  2.45 1.73 <0.0001 -1.66 1.74 <0.0001 -1.52 1.74 <0.0001 -1.52
Glycine 3.56 1.58 0.0003 -1.48 1.96 <0.0001 -1.66 1.66 <0.0001 -1.71
Creatinine 3.04 1.97 <0.0001 -1.71 1.97 <0.0001 -1.70 1.89 <0.0001 -1.91
  4.05 1.56 0.0005 -1.45 1.85 <0.0001 -1.55 1.74 <0.0001 -1.69
Glutamate γ-H 2.36 1.38 <0.0001 1.27 1.11 <0.0001 1.19 1.29 <0.0001 1.26
Valine 0.98 1.46 0.0008 1.45 1.61 0.0009 1.51 1.45 <0.0001 1.49
Taurine 3.43     1.18 0.0005 1.39 1.39 0.03 1.24
Leucine/Isoleucine 0.96 1.43 <0.001 1.40 1.55 <0.0001 1.45 1.36 <0.0001 1.44
L-tyrosine 6.93 1.22 0.005 1.61 1.41 <0.0001 1.62 1.21 <0.0001 1.66
  7.22 1.11 0.013 1.49 1.27 <0.0001 1.49 1.11 <0.0001 1.54
L-aspartate 3.92     1.16 0.0004 -1.19 1.08 0.0216 -1.15
GABA 1.91 1.58 <0.0003 2.74 1.21 <0.0001 2.88 1.50 <0.0001 3.65
  3.01   0.049 1.15   0.012 1.19 1.11 0.0005 1.29
Methionine 2.11   0.04 1.26 1.11 0.0122 1.22 1.06 0.001 1.34
  2.16 1.56 <0.0001 1.47 1.46 <0.0001 1.57 1.25 <0.0001 1.53
  2.6 1.39 <0.0001 1.59 1.25 <0.0001 1.84 1.17 <0.0001 1.58
Phenylacetyglutamine 7.42 1.01 0.024 1.38 1.16 0.0006 1.43 1.12 0.0005 1.52
Histidine 7.09 1.03 0.027 -2.22 1.30 <0.0001 -3.48 1.99 <0.0001 -2.03
  7.79   0.032 -2.82   0.038 -2.01 1.48 0.0003 -3.93
4-HPPA 2.45 1.16 0.0116 -1.61 1.37 <0.0001 -1.65 1.01 0.0026 -1.53
Dimethylglycine 3.72     1.03 0.0016 -1.50    
Phenylacetylglycine 3.68          
  7.42 1.01 0.024 1.38 1.16 0.0006 1.43 1.12 0.0005 1.52
  7.35 1.3 0.0381 1.28 1.28 0.0038 1.2 1.23 0.0024 1.35
Lipid           
Polyunsaturated fatty acids 2.84   0.0113 1.25 1.02 0.0023 1.29 1.03 0.033 1.24
Unsaturated lipids 2.27 1.04 0.01 2.23 1.17 0.0002 2.24 1.19 0.0002 2.09
Short-chain fatty acids 1.04 1.39 0.001 1.41 1.49 <0.0001 1.48 1.53 <0.0001 1.55
Phosphocholine 3.22 1.56 0.0002 1.29 1.07 0.03 1.11 1.25 <0.0001 1.05
Myo-Inositol 3.55 1.81 <0.0001 -1.76 2.10 <0.0001 -2.01 1.71 <0.0001 -2.04
  3.63 1.71 <0.0001 -1.62 2.01 <0.0001 -1.81 1.68 <0.0001 -1.86
  4.07 1.56 0.0005 -1.45 1.85 <0.0001 -1.55 1.74 <0.0001 -1.69
Cho 4.05 1.56 0.0005 -1.45 1.85 <0.0001 -1.55 1.74 <0.0001 -1.69
Choline 3.51 1.47 0.001 -1.43 1.63 <0.0001 -1.53   0.006 -1.34
  4.05 1.56 0.0005 -1.45 1.85 <0.0001 -1.55 1.74 <0.0001 -1.69
Carbohydrate           
Glycoprotein 2 2.00 <0.0001 1.64 1.89 <0.0001 1.66 1.95 <0.0001 1.81
Glucose 3.25        1.16 0.0005 -1.34
  3.53 1.81 <0.0001 -1.76 2.10 <0.0001 -2.01 1.71 <0.0001 -2.04
Polyol           
Acetone 2.22 1.47 0.0007 1.38 1.32 <0.0001 1.49 1.47 <0.0001 1.79
Ethanol 3.65 1.71 <0.0001 -1.62 2.01 <0.0001 -1.81 1.68 <0.0001 -1.86
Organic acid           
α-ketogultaric acid oxime 2.44 1.16 0.01 -1.61 1.37 <0.0001 -1.65 1.01 0.002 -1.53
  2.48 1.74 <0.0001 -1.52 1.74 <0.0001 -1.52 1.73 <0.0001 -1.66
Malonate 3.16 1.11 0.013 1.35 1.31 <0.0001 1.45 1.38 <0.0001 1.53
Acetate 1.92 1.58 <0.0003 2.74 1.21 <0.0001 2.88 1.50 <0.0001 3.65
Acetoacetic acid 2.27 1.04 0.01 1.22 1.17 0.0002 1.25 1.19 0.0002 1.28
  3.43     1.18 0.0005 1.39 1.39 0.03 1.24
Formate 8.45 1.44 <0.001 13.51 1.11 <0.001 14.84 1.31 <0.0001 21.48
Trimethylamine 2.88 1.23 <0.0001 2.09 1.41 <0.0001 2.24 1.28 0.005 2.23
Dimethylamine 2.73        1.31 0.0057 1.67
Nucleotide           
NAC2 2.04 1.69 <0.0001 1.35 1.50 <0.0001 1.31 1.65 <0.0001 1.44
NAC1 2.1   0.0495 1.26 1.11 0.0122 1.22 1.06 0.0011 1.34
AMP 6.15 1.50 <0.0001 -1.76 1.72 <0.0001 -2.10 1.60 <0.0001 -2.16
  8.67     1.20 <0.0001 -3.18 1.12 0.0007 -3.84
Adenine in ATP/ADP and NAD/NADH 8.36 1.33 <0.0001 2.02 1.45 <0.0001 2.00 1.14 0.011 1.78
  8.27 1.52 <0.0001 1.44 1.51 <0.0001 1.41 1.59 <0.0002 1.38
  8.25 1.46 <0.0001 1.44 1.51 <0.0001 1.41 1.59 <0.0002 1.38
Uracil 5.81 1.75 <0.0001 43.30 1.83 <0.0001 37.49 1.84 <0.0001 41.03
  7.54 1.31 0.003 2.12 1.28 <0.0001 2.06 1.26 <0.0001 2.24
Cofactors and vitamins           
NAD 8.83 1.56 0.0004 -2.28 1.53 <0.0001 -2.44 1.81 <0.0001 -4.55
  9.15 1.54 0.0005 -2.09 1.41 <0.0001 -2.22 1.65 <0.0001 -3.28
  9.35 1.52 0.0005 -2.12 1.39 <0.0001 -2.09 1.78 <0.0001 -3.65
Inorganic acid           
Acetyl hydrazine 1.96 1.99 <0.0001 2.02 1.62 <0.0001 2.03 1.75 <0.0001 2.40
Xenobiotics           
Hippurate 7.55 1.08 0.0171 1.78   0.0027 1.75 1.13 0.0019 1.81
  7.64 1.21 0.0079 1.12 1.28 0.0351 1.38 1.03 0.0006 1.16
  1. aVariable importance in the projection (VIP > 1) was obtained from OPLS-DA analysis.
  2. bp-value determined from Student's t-test.
  3. cFC: fold change between esophageal cancers and normal mucosae. Positive sign indicates a higher level in esophageal cancer and a negative value indicates a lower level.