Skip to main content

Table 1 EMT markers, cancer stem cell markers and signaling pathways involved in EMT and CSC in prostate cancer, especially in castration-resistant prostate cancer

From: Contributions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells to the development of castration resistance of prostate cancer

EMT marker Function CRPC Refs
E-cadherin Regulates the invasive capacity of prostate cancer cells   [3, 57, 58]
β-Catenin Regulates the process of EMT and metastatic phenotypes   [59]
N-cadherin Promotes growth, metastasis and castration resistance in prostate cancer Yes [12, 60, 61]
Cadherin-11 Enhances migration and invasion capacity of prostate cancer cells, increases the association with osteoblasts   [14, 62]
Vimentin Promotes prostate cancer cell invasion and metastasis Yes [63]
Fibronectin Protects cells from undergoing apoptosis   [64, 65]
Collagen 1 Have an effect on EMT of prostate cancer cells   [65]
alphaII(b)beta3 integrin Participates in the metastatic progression of prostatic adenocarcinoma   [66]
Syndecan-1 Associates with Gleason score and tumor progression of prostate cancer   [6769]
Zeb1 Altering the invasive phenotype of Prostate cancer cells Yes [2, 8, 70]
Slug Correlates with advanced pathological grades of prostate cancer Yes [11, 71]
Snail Contributes to prostate cancer progression and metastasis   [4, 5, 72, 73]
Twist Correlates with Gleason grading and metastasis Yes [9, 10]
ETS-1 Mediates by TGF-β, affects cell growth and tumor formation Yes [74, 75]
CSC markers Function CRPC Refs
Lgr4 Regulates early prostate development and stem cell differentiation   [32]
α2β1 integrin Produces prostate-like glands   [30]
CD133 Functions as a normal prostate stem cell marker and has tumor formation ability   [76]
CD166 A potential surface marker for castration resistant tumor cells Yes [21]
PSA Displays increased colony and sphere-form capacity Yes [22]
CD44 Associates with cells of neuro-endocrine phenotype   [77]
CD44+/α2β1hi/CD133+ Presents high proliferative ability in vitro and can differentiate to an AR–positive phenotype similar to prostate cancers in vivo   [78]
CD44+ CD24(-) Exhibits stem cell characteristics and predicts overall survival in prostate cancer patients.   [79]
Sca-1 Have high proliferative ability and high capacity to reconstitute prostatic tissue   [31]
Nkx3.1 Indicates that luminal cells might be a cell of origin Yes [20]
p63 Produces all epithelial lineages of the adult prostate (i.e., basal, luminal, and neuroendocrine cells)   [80, 81]
Lin-Sca-1-CD49f+ (LSC) Produces prostatic tubule structures   [82]
Lin-CD44+CD133+Sca-1+CD117+ Produces a prostate after transplantation in vivo   [29]
Trop2 Trop2hi basal cells give rise to basal, luminal, and neuroendocrine cells in vivo   [83]
ALDH1 Associates with a poor prognosis for patients with prostate cancer   [84, 85]
Nanog Promotes CSC phenotypes and properties in vitro and in vivo, promotes AI phenotypes and CRPC regeneration Yes [24, 25]
Bmi-1 A key regulator of self-renewal activity, plays central roles in malignant progression of prostate cancer Yes [26]
Sox2 Inhibits by AR signaling and play an important role in CRPC Yes [28]
TRA-1-60, CD151 and CD166 Exhibits enhanced sphere-forming capacities in vitro and tumor-initiation capacities in vivo   [86]
Signal pathway involved CSC and EMT Function CRPC Refs
AR A key regulator for the acquisition of EMT phenotypes Yes [42, 45]
PTEN/AKT Promotes prostate tumor growth and metastasis   [87]
AKT/GSK-3β Participates in TNFα-induced EMT process   [88]
ERK Has a profound feedback on EGFR signaling   [89]
AKT Has a great effect on cell migration via induction of the EMT characteristics   [89]
TGF-β Associates with malignant progression of prostate cancer by activation of the EMT phenotypes   [90, 91]
CCL2/CCR2-STAT3 Promotes prostate cancer cell migration/invasion and EMT pathways Yes [92]
Hsp27-STAT3-Twist Promotes prostate cancer metastasis, regulates the process of EMT Yes [39]
PTEN and RAS/MAPK Accelerates prostate cancer malignant progression accompanied by acquisition of EMT phenotypes and stem-cell like properties Yes [37]
NF-kappaB Correlates with EMT in human prostate cancer cells and may be functionally associated with the stem-like human prostate tumor initiation cells   [86, 93, 94]
JAK-STAT Participates in significantly different gene expression in prostate cancer stem cells   [95]
PDGF-D Mediates EMT process and regulates cancer cell invasion   [96]
IGF-1 Regulates EMT associated migration and invasion via elevated Zeb1 expression Yes [8]
FGFR-1 Leads to an EMT and distant metastasis   [38]
EGFR Presents loss of cell-cell junctions with decreased epithelial markers and enhanced mesenchymal markers   [89]
WNT Mediates EMT phenotypes and stemness maintenance of prostate cancer cells Yes [40, 97]
Notch and Hedgehog Regulates drug resistance and plays important roles in malignant transformation Yes [98, 99]
Hypoxia-ERβ-HIF-1a/VEGF-A Mediates EMT and have an implication in Gleason grading   [100]
DAB2IP Regulates EMT and prostate cancer metastasis and serves as a target gene of EZH2 in prostatic epithelium   [101103]
p63/miR205 Suppresses cell migration and metastasis   [104]
  Produces changes in Golgi polarization