Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Summary of noncancer drugs, their primary indication, noncancer and cancer targets

From: The prince and the pauper. A tale of anticancer targeted agents

AGENT PRIMARY INDICATION ON-TARGET Primary effects ON-TARGET Antitumor effects OFF-TARGET Antitumor effects
CCA
Verapamil Diltiazem Anti-arrhytmic L-type Ca2+ channels L-type Ca 2+ channels Voltage-gated K+ channels MDR proteins
Inotropics
Digitalis Heart failure Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Death receptors Glycolysis
RAS
Losartan Hypertension ACE, AT1R AT 1 R  
Captopril Heart failure    
Antianginal
Nitroglycerin CHD GMP cGMP  
Alpha 1 -adrenoceptor antagonists
Terazosin Hypertension A1R A 1 R EGFR
Alfuzosin BPH    
Prazosin     
Vasodilator
Hydralazine Hypertension Unknown   DNA methylation
Antiarrhytmic
Procainamide Arrhytmias Na+ channels   DNMT1
Local anesthetic
Procaine Local anesthesia Na+ channels   DNA methylation
Antiepileptic
Valproic acid Epilepsia GABA ergic Blocking NMDA Na+ channels Class I-II HDACs PPARγ
Antidiabetics
Glitazones Diabetes mellitus PPARγ PPARγ  
Metformin Diabetes mellitus AMPK AMPK  
Antiobesity
Orlistat Obesity Fatty-Acid Synthase Fatty-Acid Synthase  
Cholesterol lowering agents
Statins Cholesterolemia HMGC HMGC  
Antimalarial
Chloroquine Malaria Lysosomas Lysosomas Autophagia
Abortive
Mifepristone Abortion Progesterone receptor Progesterone receptor MDR/MPR
  1. Italic fonts indicate that the targets are shared by the pathological conditions (on-target effects).
  2. Underlined fonts indicate that the antitumor effect is explained by different targets (off-target effects).
  3. This table indicates that some "benign" conditions share molecular alterations with malignant diseases (one target-several indications).
  4. CCA: calcium channel antagonists; RAS: renine-angiotensin-system; CHD: coronary heart disease; BPH: benign prostatic hyperplasia.