E-cadherin expression suppresses migration (A) and invasion (B). Cell migration was analyzed using a scratch assay. Scratch closure was measured over a period of 24 hours and the fraction closure was quanitified by Metamorph software (n = 3). Invasion was measured in using a Matrigel invasion assay in which cells were allowed to migrate through a Matrigel-coated transwell insert for a period of 24 hours. N = 3 in triplicate; mean ± s.e.m. Results shown are representative of one of two independent clones of each mutant.