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Table 2 P-cadherin expression in invasion and metastasis and the corresponding signalling pathways. This table focuses on the major tumour promoting signalling effects mediated by P-cadherin in the metastatic setting

From: P-cadherin and the journey to cancer metastasis

  Metastatic site Phenotype Signalling Ref.
Breast cancer Lymph nodes Significant change of P-cad expression in the lymph nodes vs. primary tumour   Adamczyk et al., 2012 [69]
   Invasion, migration motility Soluble P-cad, MMPs Ribeiro et al., 2010 [75]
   Stem cell activity
Adhesion to laminin
α6β 4-integrin, FAK, Src, Akt Vieira et al., 2012 and 2014 [16, 17]
   Increased glycolysis and acid resistance CA-IX, Glut-1 Sousa et al., 2014 [94]
Ovary Peritoneum P-cad necessary for adhesion of CaOV-3 cells to the peritoneum P-cad/β 1-integrin Ip et al., 2014 [85]
  Peritoneum P-cad necessary for adhesion of CaOV-3 and OVCAR-3 (to ECM and peritoneal cells) P-cad inhibition attenuated tumour growth, ascites formation, and the number of metastatic implants Gonadotropin-releasing hormone induces P-cadherin expression and α2, α5 and β1 integrin Cheung et al., 2013 [70]
  Peritoneum P-cad necessary for the activation of the IGF-1R by GnRH in CaOV-3 cells
P-cad and p-IGF-1R coexpression was significantly stronger in metastasis compared with primary tumours
p120 phosphorylation by Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is dependent on P-cadherin and IGF-1R interaction Cheung et al., 2011 [86]
Colon Liver Increased in liver metastasis of colon cancer, compared with the primary cancer tissue; Knock-down of P-cadherin in colon cancer cells (LOVO) resulted in developing fewer liver metastatic foci P-cad inhibition in colon cancer cells (LOVO) induced the up-regulation of E-cadherin and the down-regulation of β-catenin and its downstream target molecules, including survivin and c-Myc. Sun et al., 2011 [71]
Prostate cancer Bone P-cad expression in primary tumour associated with shorter time to skeletal metastasis   Gravdal et al., 2007 [72]
Gallbladder adenocarcinoma Lymph nodes P-cad expression in primary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma associated with lymph node metastasis   Yi et al. 2014 [68]