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Table 1 Identified liver CSC markers and their functions

From: The evolving concept of liver cancer stem cells

Marker Author (year) Function in liver CSCs Reference
CD133 S. Ma [4] Regulation of neurotensin/IL-8/CXCL1 signaling [4, 43]
CD90 Z. Yang [5] Not reported [5, 6]
CD44 Z. Yang [6] Regulation of TGF-beta-mediated EMT, Reduction of ROS through xCT stabilization [6, 47, 48]
OV6 W. Yang [7] Not reported [7]
EpCAM T. Yamashita [8] Activation of Wnt signaling, Induction of Wnt-regulated CSC-like gene signature [8, 52, 53]
CD13 N. Haraguchi [9] Cell protection from apoptosis via the ROS scavenger pathway [9]
CD24 T. K. Lee [10] STAT3-mediated NANOG regulation [10]
DLK1 X. Xu [11] Not reported [11]
α2δ1 W. Zhao [12] Calcium influx regulation function through L- and N-type voltage-gated calcium channels [12]
ICAM1 S. Liu [13] Not reported [13]
CD47 T. K. Lee [14] Regulation of CSC properties by cathepsin S/protease-activated receptor 2 paracrine loop [14]
Lgr5 Z. J. Lei [15] Not reported [15]
Keratin19 T. Kawai [16] Not reported [16]