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Table 2 Diagnostic, prognostic and predictive applications of cell-free DNA

From: Liquid biopsy: a step forward towards precision medicine in urologic malignancies

Clinical application Cancer type Sample type Type of cfDNA analysis Reference
Predict treatment response • RCC
• Bladder
• Prostate
• Plasma
• Serum
• cfDNAa level
• Methylation
• Mutations
[13, 29, 3740]
Predict recurrence • RCC
• Bladder
• Prostate
• Plasma
• Urine
• Mutations
• Methylation
• cfDNA %
[14, 30, 32]
Prognosis • RCC
• Bladder
• Prostate
• Plasma
• Serum
• ctDNAb level
• DNA integrity
• Methylation
[20, 23, 35, 36]
Diagnosis • RCC
• Bladder
• Prostate
• Urine
• Plasma
• Serum
• Alteration in DNA level
• cfDNA integrity
• Methylation
• Mutations
[1518, 20, 21, 2428]
[31, 33, 34]
  1. aCell-free DNA, bCirculating tumor DNA