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Fig. 2 | Molecular Cancer

Fig. 2

From: Reactive oxygen species: a volatile driver of field cancerization and metastasis

Fig. 2

ROS in the TME: ROS can directly or indirectly modulate the functions of many cell types in the TME. ROS are able to transform normal epithelial cells and normal fibroblasts into malignant cells and CAFs respectively. ROS produced by cancer cells, TAMs and MDSCs can have an immunosuppressive effect on T-cells and B-cells. ROS can accumulate in the extracellular matrix, causing neighboring normal cells to acquire malignant phenotypes. Migration of the ROS-producing cells (cancer cells, CAFs, TAMs, MDSCs) to distant tissue or organ can start a new cancer field, transforming neighboring normal cells into cancer supporting cells or new malignant cells. This expanding field provides the appropriate “soil” for the survival and growth of newly-disseminated cancer cells or newly-transformed cells (the “seed”)

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