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Fig. 3 | Molecular Cancer

Fig. 3

From: Mechanisms associated with biogenesis of exosomes in cancer

Fig. 3

Mechanisms of exosome biogenesis. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are formed from budding of early endosomes, which is in part regulated by neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), syntenin, ALIX, tetraspanins, and phospholipase D2 (PLD2). In addition, vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus can fuse with endosomes to be incorporated into MVBs. MVBs fuse with the plasma membrane releasing their contents (exosomes). Membrane docking is regulated by Rab7, Rab11, Rab27, Rab35, soluble NSF attachement protein receptors (SNAREs), cortactin and coronin 1b

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