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Table 1 Small molecules and their effect on exosome release in cancer cells

From: Mechanisms associated with biogenesis of exosomes in cancer

Treatment Effect on exosome secretion Cancer cell type
GW4869 Decreases
No effect
Bladder cancer cells (T24) [63]
Epidermal cancer cells (A431) [39]
Liver cancer cells (Huh7) [64]
Melanoma cells (B16BL6) [65]
Multiple myeloma cells (OPM2) [62]
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells (SCC61) [56]
Prostate cancer cells (22RV1 and PC3) [66]
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (mEERL) [67]
Breast cancer cells (MDA MB 231) [49]
Prostate cancer cells (PC3) [70]
C6 ceramide Increases Multiple myeloma cells (OPM2) [62]
Hypoxia Increases Breast cancer cells (MCF7, SKBR3 and MDA MB 231) [80]
Shikonin Decreases Lung cancer cells (A549) [83]
Acidic pH/ protein pump inhibitors Increases Melanoma cells (Mel1-Mel3, Me665/1, MelP1-MelP3 and WM983A) [84, 85]
Tunicamycin Increases Cervical cancer cells (HeLa) [90]
Monensin Increases Leukemia cells (K562) [94]
Irradiation Increases Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and DU145) [97]
UV radiation Increases Colon cancer cells (HCT116) [99]
Doxorubicin Increases Prostate cancer cells (PC3) [100]
Photodynamic treatment Increases Prostate cancer cells (PC3) [100]
Tipifarnib Decreases Prostate cancer cells (C4-2B) [106]
Melphalan Increases Multiple myeloma cells (SKO-007) [102]
CI-1033/ PF-00299804 Increases Glioma cells (U373) [39]
Manumycin A Decreases Prostate cancer cells (C4-2B) [66]