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Table 1 Therapeutic regimens to prevent cancer recurrence after surgery

From: Surgical stress and cancer progression: the twisted tango

Drug Description Perioperative anti-tumor mechanism Examples Reference
β-adrenoceptor antagonists (β-blockers) Inhibitor of β-adrenoceptors; used to treat heart failure, tachycardia, and hypertension Blockade of stress-induced catecholamine release Propranolol, Metoprolol [132,133,134,135,136,137]
NSAIDs Inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase; use to reduce pain, fever, inflammation, and prevent blood clots Inhibition of COX-2 Aspirin, Meloxicam, Celecoxib, Parecoxib [10, 138,139,140,141]
PDE-5 inhibitors Inhibitor of PDE-5, conventionally used to treat erectile dysfunction Downregulation of ARG1, IL4Ra and ROS expression Sildenafil, Tadalafil [96]
Immunostimulants Many diseases such as malignancy will stimulate the immune system Activation of immune cells (e.g. NK cells) Toll-like receptor agonists, vaccines, checkpoint inhibitors [142,143,144,145,146,147,148]
Statins Lipid-lowering medications Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase or cholesterol synthesis Fluvastatin [149]
Anticoagulants Inhibit thrombosis Inhibit formation of fibrin and platelet clots Aspirin, heparin, warfarin [72, 150,151,152]
Bevacizumab Inhibits angiogenesis Inhibits VEGF Bevacizumab [153]
  1. Abbrevations : NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; COX-2, Cyclooxygenase 2; NK, natural killer; HMG-CoA, β-Hydroxy β-methylglutaryl-CoA; VEGF, Vascular endothelial growth factor; PDE-5, Phosphodiesterase-5; ARG1, Arginase 1; ROS, reactive oxygen species