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Table 1 Potential exosomes biomarkers involved in pancreas precancerous diseases

From: The potential roles of exosomes in pancreatic cancer initiation and metastasis

Biomarkers Sample Receipt cell Exosome function Clinical significance Refs
Calreticulin/Gp96/ORP150 Islet β-cells DCs Increase activation of APCs T1DM [38]
CCN2/miR-21 PSCs PSCs Stimulate the migration, proliferation, and division of PSCs as well as the collagen and fibronectin secretion CP [39]
FABP4 ↑ Serum Not mentioned Exacerbate insulin resistance and result in hyperglycemia T2DM [40]
GAD65/IA-2/Pro-insulin Islet β-cells DCs/T-cells Decrease β-cell content and insulin secretion T1DM [38]
Klotho MSCs PACs Block inflammatory responses and apoptosis AP [41]
RBP4 Adipocytes Macrophages Stimulate macrophages to secrete IL-6 or TNF-α IR [42]
TAAs ↑ Serum B lymphocytes Prevent B lymphocytes from recognizing PaCa cells IS [43,44,45]
MiR-16 SKMs Islet β-cells Inhibit β-cell proliferation IR and T2DM [46]
MiR-16-5p/574-5p/21-5p ↓ Serum Not mentioned Not mentioned T1DM [47]
MiR-30/133b/342 ↑ Urine Adipocytes Not mentioned T2DM [48]
MiR-106b-5p/222-3p-c BMCs Islet β-cells Induce β-cells proliferation T1DM [49]
MiR-142-3p/142-5p/155 T lymphocytes Islet β-cells Induce apoptosis in β-cells T1DM [50]
MiR-146a/b/195/497 Islet tumor cells Islet tumor/β-cells Induce apoptosis in islet tumor cells and β-cells T2DM [51]
MiR-155/222/486 ADCs Not mentioned Not mentioned DM [52,53,54]
MiR-203 PaCa cells DCs inhibit the expression of TLR4, TNF-α, and IL-12 IS [55]
MiR-212-3p PaCa cells DCs Inhibit DCs from presenting antigens to T lymphocytes IS [56]
MiR-375 ↑ Serum Not mentioned Reduce insulin secretion and islet formation T2DM [57, 58]
MiR-1260a/494-3p *PaCa cells iPBMCs Not mentioned IS [59]
lncRNA ENST/mRNA AEP/legumain PaCa cells DCs Not mentioned Not mentioned [60]
  1. ↑, up-regulation; ↓, down-regulation
  2. Abbreviations: ADCs adipose derived macrophages, MSCs mesenchymal stem cells, BMCs bone marrow cells, iPBMCs immunosuppressive peripheral blood mononuclear cells, IR insulin resistance, IS immune suppression, lncRNA ENST lncRNA ENST00000560647, NF-κB nuclear factor-κB, *PaCa cells SMAD4−/− pancreatic cancer cells, PAC pancreatic acinar cells