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Table 2 Potential exosomes biomarkers involved in PaCa metastasis

From: The potential roles of exosomes in pancreatic cancer initiation and metastasis

Biomarkers Sample Target cell Exosome function Signaling pathway Refs
CD44v6 hPaCa-CM hPaCa cells Enhance migration and invasion Activate Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and increase PAI-1, MMP and TIM-1 [110]
CD151/Tspan8 rPaCa-CM hPaCa cells Promote EMT, migration and metastasis, and increase drug resistance Increase expression of chemokine and receptor such as CXCR4 and EGFR3 [111, 112]
Claudin7 rPaCIC hPaCa cells Promote migration and invasion Increase pAkt/Bcl-2/Bcl-XL /MDR1, promote matrix degradation, and reprogram SC and HPC [113]
ICAM-1/AA hPaCa-CM Macrophage Induce macrophage phenotype change and promote tumor growth Increase VEGF, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-1β, MMP-9 and TNF-α [114]
Lin28B hPaCa-CM hPaCa/PSC Promote metastatic invasion Activate Lin28B/let-7/HMGA2 /PDGFB axis [115]
MIF m/hPaCa-CM KC/HSC Promote the formation of the liver pre-metastatic niche Up-regulate TGF-β expression and induce fibronectin secretion [116]
Plectin hPaCa-CM hPaCa cells Induce migration, proliferation and invasion Not mentioned [117]
Tspan8/106/49d rPaCa-CM EC Induce proliferation, migration, sprouting and progenitors maturation of EC Induce VEGF-independent angiogenesis [118]
VEGF hPaCa cells hPaCa cells Enhance tumor growth and angiogenesis Activate VEGF signal pathway to stimulate angiogenesis and tumor growth [119]
ZIP4 haPaCa-CM hPaCa cells Increase proliferation, migration, and invasion of non-metastatic PaCa cells Not mentioned [120]
miR-27a hPaCa-CM HMVEC Promote cell survival and growth Induce angiogenesis by inhibiting BTG2 expression [121]
miR-222 CM/Serum hPaCa cells Enhance proliferation and invasion Induce decrease, phosphorylation and redistribution of p27 via PPP2R2A/Akt axis [122]
miR-301a-3p hPaCa-CM Macrophage Enhance migration and invasion, and induce macrophage phenotype change Activate PTEN/PI3K signaling pathway [123]
miR-339-5p mPaCa-CM mPaCa cells Enhance migration and invasion Decrease expression of zinc finger protein ZNF689 [124]
miR-501-3p Macrophage hPaCa cells Induce tumorigenesis and metastasis Decrease TGFBR3 levels and activate TGF-β signaling [125]
miR-1246/1290 hPaCa-CM PSC Promote PSC proliferation and pancreatic fibrosis Induce Akt/ERK activation and increase α-SMA and procollagen type I C-peptide [126]
mRNA-hTERT hPaCa serum PHFF Induce proliferation and inhibit senescence Enhance telomerase activity [127]
circ-IARS hPaCa-CM EC/HUVEC Promote angiogenesis and metastasis by enhancing endothelial monolayer permeability and inducing HUVEC growth Down-regulate miR-122 and ZO-1, up-regulate RhoA, RhoA-GTP, and F-actin as well as promote focal adhesion [128]
circ-PDE8A hPaCa serum hPaCa cells Promote invasive growth Activate MACC/MET/ERK/Akt axis [129]
  1. Abbreviations: CM culture medium, EC rat aortic epithelial cells, haPaCa-CM culture medium from hamster pancreatic cancer cells, hPaCa-CM culture medium from human pancreatic cancer cells, HPC hematopoietic cells, m/hPaCa-CM culture medium from mouse or human pancreatic cancer cells, mPaCa cells mouse pancreatic cancer cells, PHFF primary human foreskin fibroblasts, rPaCa-CM culture medium from rat pancreatic carcinoma cells, rPaCIC culture medium from rat pancreatic cancer initiating cells, SC stroma cells