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Table 1 Alterations in N6-methyladenosine writers, erasers and readers in cancer. AML: Acute myeloid leukaemia; HCC: Hepatocellular Carcinoma; GSC: Glioma Stem Cells; LncRNA: long non-coding RNA

From: The role of m6A, m5C and Ψ RNA modifications in cancer: Novel therapeutic opportunities

Factor/Enzyme Cancer type Alteration Mechanism Ref
Writers
METTL3 AML Upregulated METTL3 promotes translation of oncogenes’ mRNAs, inhibiting cell differentiation and apoptosis. [117, 118]
Bladder Cancer Upregulated METTL3 accelerates miR221/222 maturation. [104, 157, 321, 322]
Breast Cancer Upregulated METTL3 inhibits miRNA let-7 and induces proliferation and survival. [119]
Colon Cancer Upregulated METTL3 increases miRNA-1246 expression inducing metastasis. [120]
Endometrial Cancer Downregulated METTL3 regulates the expression of members of AKT pathway and inhibits cell proliferation. [111]
Glioblastoma Downregulated METTL3 decreases oncogene expression and inhibits the self-renewal. [35, 136]
Glioblastoma/ Gastric Cancer Upregulated METTL3 increases the stability of oncogenic mRNAs. [123, 323]
HCC Upregulated METTL3 inhibits mRNA expression of tumour suppressors, increasing proliferation and metastasis. [56, 114]
Lung/Colon Cancer Upregulated METTL3 promotes oncogenes’ mRNA translation. [113]
Lung Cancer Upregulated METTL3 increases miR-143-3p expression and induces oncogenes translation. [43, 324, 325]
Melanoma Upregulated Unknown. [326, 327]
Osteosarcoma Upregulated METTL3 increases mRNA expression of oncogenes. [328]
Ovarian Cancer Upregulated METTL3 stimulates the translation of oncogenes. [329, 330]
Prostate Cancer Upregulated METTL3 increases oncogene mRNA expression. [121]
Prostate Cancer Upregulated METTL3 increases the mRNA stability of cell adhesion genes. [122]
Renal Cell Carcinoma Upregulated Unknown. [124, 331, 332]
METTL14 AML Upregulated METTL14 increases oncogenes’ mRNA stability and translation. [40]
Bladder Cancer Downregulated METTL14 increases oncogenes’ mRNA decay. [333]
Colon Cancer Downregulated METTL14 regulating primary miRNA processing of YAP an SP1 pathways or downregulating lncRNA XIST. [334, 335]
Endometrial Cancer Downregulated METTL14 regulates the expression of members of AKT pathway and inhibits cell proliferation. [111]
HCC Downregulated METTL14 induces an increase of pri-miR-126 expression that suppresses tumour metastases. [12]
Renal Cell Carcinoma Downregulated METTL14 represses the translation of P2RX6 increasing invasion. [336]
Pancreatic Cancer Downregulated Unknown. [337]
Erasers
FTO AML Upregulated FTO enhances oncogenes’ mRNA stability. [36, 37]
Bladder Cancer Downregulated Unknown. [338]
Breast Cancer Upregulated FTO downregulates the expression of tumour suppressor genes. [134]
Cervical Cancer Upregulated FTO promotes translation of oncogenes, promoting migration and drug resistance. [131, 132]
Glioblastoma No change FTO regulates of oncogene expression. [35, 136]
HCC Downregulated Unknown. [339]
Lung Cancer Upregulated FTO regulates MZF1 expression. [133]
Melanoma Upregulated FTO increases stability of critical immunotherapy resistance and pro-tumorigenic melanoma cell-intrinsic genes. [38, 130]
Pancreatic Cancer Upregulated FTO promotes oncogene mRNA stability. [340]
ALKBH5 AML Upregulated Unknown. [341, 342]
Breast Cancer Upregulated ALKBH5 enhances mRNA stability of stem cell self-renewal genes. [135, 137]
Glioblastoma Upregulated ALKBH5 sustains oncogene expression. [136]
Gastric Cancer No change Binding to NEAT1 lncRNA, which promotes invasion and metastasis. [138]
Lung Cancer Downregulated ALKBH5 reduces oncogene expression and inhibits oncogenic miRNA. [343]
Osteosarcoma Upregulated ALKBH5 decreases the decay of the lncRNA PVT1. [344]
Ovarian Cancer Upregulated ALKBH5 enhances stability of oncogenes, self-renewal genes and survival genes. [139, 142]
Pancreatic Cancer Upregulated Unknown. [140, 141]
Readers
YTHDC2 Colon Cancer Upregulated YTHDC2 upregulates expression of pro-metastatic genes. [143]
YTHDF1 Colon Cancer Upregulated Induces Wnt-β-catenin pathway and unknown. [144, 345]
Melanoma Downregulated YTHDF1 promotes the translation of tumour suppressor genes. [146]
Ovarian Cancer Upregulated YTHDF1 increases translation of oncogenes. [145]
YTHDF2 AML Upregulated YTHDF2 reduces the stability of transcripts such as TNFRSF2. [147]
HCC Upregulated YTHDF2 inhibits SOCS2 mRNA expression. [56]
HCC Downregulated YTHDF2 promotes the degradation of EGFR mRNA. [149]
Lung Cancer Upregulated YTHDF2 promotes the translation of 6PGD mRNA. [148]
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