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Table 3 New technologies for exosomal nucleic acid detection

From: Exosomes as a new frontier of cancer liquid biopsy

Methods Exosome sources Sample volume Nucleic acids Detection mechanism Advantages Disadvantages Ref.
Droplet digital PCR Urine 2 mL miRNA; gene variation Nucleic acid amplification of droplets in an oil emulsion Absolute quantification; small sample volume; high accuracy and sensitivity; High-cost; limited throughout; complex operation [163]
Cerebrospinal fluid of GBM patients 1 mL IDH1 mutation [164]
Plasma samples of HCC patients and control cohorts 90 μL HCC-specific mRNA [61]
Cancer cell lines and patient plasma 2 μL GAPDH mRNA [165]
Human plasma   miR-15a-5p [40]
Human plasma   PGR mRNA; ESR1 mRNA; ERBB2 mRNA [120]
Clinical blood 1.5 mL EV-lncRNA of SLC9A3-AS1 and PCAT6 [166]
Serum 100 μL circHIPK3 and circSM ARCA5 [167]
Molecular beacons Cancer cells and human serums 35 μL miRNA-21 Fluorescent, enzyme-labeled oligonucleotide probes identifying and detecting nucleic acid with complementary sequences High specificity, simplicity; low background fluorescence; rapid detection High-cost; limited throughout [122]
Breast cancer cell line and human plasma   miR-21; miR-375; and miR-27a [121]
Prostate cancer cells and human urine   miRNA-375 and miRNA-574-3p [168]
Human plasma 10 μL miR-1246 [169]
RBC-derived EVs   miRNA-451a [170]
PCA cell   miR-21 [151]
DNA tetrahedron probe Serum   miR-21 Leverage localized reaction and cascade amplification High specificity and sensitivity High-cost [171]
Plasma 1 mL miR-1246; miR-221; miR-375; miR-21 [172]
SPR Detection Pancreatic cancer cells and plasma 50 μL miR-10b The change of dielectric constant caused by molecule adsorption on the heavy metal film High specificity and sensitivity; label-free Nonspecific adsorption [173]
Plasma   miRNA [123]
Mouse serum   miR-10b [174]
Single Vesicle Analysis Serum   hsa-miRNA-21 Single-vesicle imaging Direct visualization; acknowledgement of heterogeneity at the single-vesicle level Nonspecific adsorption [119]
Thermophoretic Detection Serum 0.5 μL miRNA Nanoflare induced amplified fluorescence signal Without the need for EV pre-isolation; high sensitivity; rapid detection; low cost   [175]
CRISPR/Cas-assisted detection Plasma 500 μL miRNA-21; miRNA-221; miRNA-222 CRISPR/Cas9 High sensitivity and specificity   [176]
  1. PGR Progesterone receptor, ESR1 Estrogen receptor 1, ERBB2 erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2, PCAT6 Prostate cancer associated transcript 6