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Table 1 Strategies and mechanisms of reversing drug resistance by inducing ferroptosis

From: Ferroptosis in cancer therapy: a novel approach to reversing drug resistance

Reversing chemotherapy resistance by inducing ferroptosis.
Chemotherapeutic Drugs Ferroptosis-Inducing Compounds Targets for Ferroptosis Induction Cancer Type Mechanisms References
Temozolomide Curcumin analog Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) Glioblastoma Curcumin analog induces androgen receptor (AR) ubiquitination and suppresses GPX4, thereby inducing ferroptosis and overcoming temozolomide resistance. [33]
Oxaliplatin / GPX4 Colorectal cancer Disrupting the KIF20A/NUAK1/PP1β/GPX4 pathway inhibits GPX4 to induce ferroptosis and overcomes oxaliplatin resistance. [34]
Cisplatin Ent-kaurane diterpenoids Glutathione (GSH) Lung cancer Ent-kaurane diterpenoids target peroxiredoxin I/II and block GSH synthesis, thereby inducing ferroptosis and overcoming cisplatin resistance. [35]
Erastin and sulfasalazine Cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) Head and neck cancer Erastin and sulfasalazine inhibit the xCT system to induce ferroptosis and overcome cisplatin resistance. [36]
/ xCT Gastric cancer Suppressing the Nrf2/Keap1/xCT pathway inhibits xCT system to induce ferroptosis and overcome cisplatin resistance. [37]
Dihydroartemisinin Labile iron pool (LIP) Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma Dihydroartemisinin increases cellular LIP to induce ferroptosis and overcome cisplatin resistance. [38]
5-fluorouracil / Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) Colorectal cancer Targeting LCN2 increases cellular LIP to induce ferroptosis and overcome 5-fluorouracil resistance. [39, 40]
Multidrugs / Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) Breast cancer Inhibition of DMT1 increases cellular LIP to induce ferroptosis and overcome multidrug resistance. [41]
Reversing targeted therapy resistance by inducing ferroptosis.
Targeted Drugs Ferroptosis-Inducing Compounds Targets for Ferroptosis Induction Cancer Type Mechanisms References
Olaparib Sulfasalazine xCT  Ovarian cancer Sulfasalazine suppresses SLC7A11 to induce ferroptosis and overcome olaparib resistance. [42]
Cetuximab β-elemene GPX4 Colorectal cancer (KRAS-mutant) β-elemene inhibits GPX4 to induce ferroptosis and overcome cetuximab resistance. [43]
Gefitinib / GPX4 Breast cancer Inhibition of GPX4 induces ferroptosis and overcomes gefitinib resistance. [44]
Sorafenib Trigonelline NRF2 Hepatocellular carcinoma Trigonelline inhibits NRF2 to induce ferroptosis and overcome sorafenib resistance. [45]
Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) Vorinostat xCT Lung cancer Vorinostat inhibits xCT system to induce ferroptosis and overcome EGFR-TKIs resistance. [46]
Sunitinib Artesunate GPX4 Renal cell carcinoma Artesunate inhibits GPX4 to induce ferroptosis and overcome sunitinib resistance. [47]