Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;68:394–424.
Wu C, Li M, Meng H, Liu Y, Niu W, Zhou Y, et al. Analysis of status and countermeasures of cancer incidence and mortality in China. Sci China Life Sci. 2019;62:640–7.
Wei F, Wu Y, Tang L, Xiong F, Guo C, Li X, et al. Trend analysis of cancer incidence and mortality in China. Sci China Life Sci. 2017;60:1271–5.
Krall JA, Reinhardt F, Mercury OA, Pattabiraman DR, Brooks MW, Dougan M, et al. The systemic response to surgery triggers the outgrowth of distant immune-controlled tumors in mouse models of dormancy. Sci Transl Med. 2018;10. https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aan3464.
Fan C, Tang Y, Wang J, Xiong F, Guo C, Wang Y, et al. The emerging role of Epstein-Barr virus encoded microRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Cancer. 2018;9:2852–64.
He Y, Jing Y, Wei F, Tang Y, Yang L, Luo J, et al. Long non-coding RNA PVT1 predicts poor prognosis and induces radioresistance by regulating DNA repair and cell apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9:235.
Tang L, Wei F, Wu Y, He Y, Shi L, Xiong F, et al. Role of metabolism in cancer cell radioresistance and radiosensitization methods. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018;37:87.
Wei F, Tang L, He Y, Wu Y, Shi L, Xiong F, et al. BPIFB1 (LPLUNC1) inhibits radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by inhibiting VTN expression. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9:432.
Tsimberidou AM, Iskander NG, Hong DS, Wheler JJ, Falchook GS, Fu S, et al. Personalized medicine in a phase I clinical trials program: the MD Anderson Cancer Center initiative. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:6373–83.
Tsimberidou AM, Ringborg U, Schilsky RL. Strategies to overcome clinical, regulatory, and financial challenges in the implementation of personalized medicine. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2013:118–25.
Tsimberidou AM, Wen S, Hong DS, Wheler JJ, Falchook GS, Fu S, et al. Personalized medicine for paGenome-wide analysis of 18 Epstein-Barr viruses isolated frotients with advanced cancer in the phase I program at MD Anderson: validation and landmark analyses. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:4827–36.
Tsimberidou AM. Targeted therapy in cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015;76:1113–32.
Thanarajasingam G, Thanarajasingam U, Ansell SM. Immune checkpoint blockade in lymphoid malignancies. FEBS J. 2016;283:2233–44.
Freeman GJ, Long AJ, Iwai Y, ., Bourque K, ., Chernova T, ., Nishimura H, ., et al. Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation. J Exp Med, 2000;192:1027.
Krummel MF, Allison JP. CD28 and CTLA-4 have opposing effects on the response of T cells to stimulation. J Exp Med. 1995;182:459–65.
Leach DR, Krummel MF, Allison JP. Enhancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade. Science. 1996;271:1734–6.
Nishimura H, Nose M, Hiai H, Minato N, Honjo T. Development of lupus-like autoimmune diseases by disruption of the PD-1 gene encoding an ITIM motif-carrying immunoreceptor. Immunity. 1999;11:141–51.
Duan S, Guo W, Xu Z, He Y, Liang C, Mo Y, et al. Natural killer group 2D receptor and its ligands in cancer immune escape. Mol Cancer. 2019;18:29.
Wang YA, Li XL, Mo YZ, Fan CM, Tang L, Xiong F, et al. Effects of tumor metabolic microenvironment on regulatory T cells. Mol Cancer. 2018;17:168.
Xiong F, Deng S, Huang HB, Li XY, Zhang WL, Liao QJ, et al. Effects and mechanisms of innate immune molecules on inhibiting nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Chin Med J. 2019;132:749–52.
Xiang B, Snook AE, Magee MS, Waldman SA. Colorectal cancer immunotherapy. Discov Med. 2013;15:301–8.
Tchou J, Zhao Y, Levine BL, Zhang PJ, Davis MM, Melenhorst JJ, et al. Safety and efficacy of Intratumoral injections of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in metastatic breast Cancer. Cancer Immunol Res. 2017;5:1152–61.
You F, Jiang L, Zhang B, Lu Q, Zhou Q, Liao X, et al. Phase 1 clinical trial demonstrated that MUC1 positive metastatic seminal vesicle cancer can be effectively eradicated by modified anti-MUC1 chimeric antigen receptor transduced T cells. Sci China Life Sci. 2016;59:386–97.
Tanaka M, Tashiro H, Omer B, Lapteva N, Ando J, Ngo M, et al. Vaccination targeting native receptors to enhance the function and proliferation of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:3499–509.
Thistlethwaite FC, Gilham DE, Guest RD, Rothwell DG, Pillai M, Burt DJ, et al. The clinical efficacy of first-generation carcinoembryonic antigen (CEACAM5)-specific CAR T cells is limited by poor persistence and transient pre-conditioning-dependent respiratory toxicity. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017;66:1425–36.
Babbitt BP, Allen PM, Matsueda G, Haber E, Unanue ER. Binding of immunogenic peptides to Ia histocompatibility molecules. Nature. 1985;317:359–61.
Bjorkman PJ, Saper MA, Samraoui B, Bennett WS, Strominger JL, Wiley DC. Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2. J Immunol. 2005;174:6–19.
Cerottini JC, Engers HD, Macdonald HR, Brunner T. Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro. I. Response of normal and immune mouse spleen cells in mixed leukocyte cultures. J Exp Med. 1974;140:703–17.
Gillis S, Smith KA. Long term culture of tumour-specific cytotoxic T cells. Nature. 1977;268:154–6.
Srivastava PK. Neoepitopes of cancers: looking Back, looking ahead. Cancer Immunol Res. 2015;3:969–77.
Prehn RT, Main JM. Immunity to methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1957;18:769–78.
De Plaen E, Lurquin C, Van Pel A, Mariame B, Szikora JP, Wolfel T, et al. Immunogenic (tum-) variants of mouse tumor P815: cloning of the gene of tum- antigen P91A and identification of the tum- mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:2274–8.
Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Aparicio SA, Behjati S, Biankin AV, et al. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer. Nature. 2013;500:415–21.
Tu C, Zeng Z, Qi P, Li X, Guo C, Xiong F, et al. Identification of genomic alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived Epstein-Barr virus by whole-genome sequencing. Carcinogenesis. 2018;39:1517–28.
Tu C, Zeng Z, Qi P, Li X, Yu Z, Guo C, et al. Genome-wide analysis of 18 Epstein-Barr viruses isolated from primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsy specimens. J Virol. 2017;91. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00301-17.
Li L, Goedegebuure SP, Gillanders WE. Preclinical and clinical development of neoantigen vaccines. Ann Oncol. 2017;28:xii11–7.
Monach PA, Meredith SC, Siegel CT, Schreiber H. A unique tumor antigen produced by a single amino acid substitution. Immunity. 1995;2:45–59.
Blank C, Brown I, Peterson AC, Spiotto M, Iwai Y, Honjo T, et al. PD-L1/B7H-1 inhibits the effector phase of tumor rejection by T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic CD8+ T cells. Cancer Res. 2004;64:1140–5.
Snyder A, Makarov V, Merghoub T, Yuan J, Zaretsky JM, Desrichard A, et al. Genetic basis for clinical response to CTLA-4 blockade in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:2189–99.
Chen DS, Mellman I. Elements of cancer immunity and the cancer-immune set point. Nature. 2017;541:321–30.
Karpanen T, Olweus J. The potential of donor T-cell repertoires in Neoantigen-targeted Cancer immunotherapy. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1718.
Horak P, Frohling S, Glimm H. Integrating next-generation sequencing into clinical oncology: strategies, promises and pitfalls. ESMO Open. 2016;1:e000094.
Karasaki T, Nagayama K, Kuwano H, Nitadori JI, Sato M, Anraku M, et al. Prediction and prioritization of neoantigens: integration of RNA sequencing data with whole-exome sequencing. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:170–7.
Roberts ND, Kortschak RD, Parker WT, Schreiber AW, Branford S, Scott HS, et al. A comparative analysis of algorithms for somatic SNV detection in cancer. Bioinformatics. 2013;29:2223–30.
Li L, Goedegebuure P, Mardis ER, Ellis MJ, Zhang X, Herndon JM, et al. Cancer genome sequencing and its implications for personalized cancer vaccines. Cancers (Basel). 2011;3:4191–211.
van Buuren MM, Calis JJ, Schumacher TN. High sensitivity of cancer exome-based CD8 T cell neo-antigen identification. Oncoimmunology. 2014;3:e28836.
Schumacher TN, Schreiber RD. Neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Science. 2015;348:69–74.
Gubin MM, Zhang X, Schuster H, Caron E, Ward JP, Noguchi T, et al. Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens. Nature. 2014;515:577–81.
Ott PA, Hu Z, Keskin DB, Shukla SA, Sun J, Bozym DJ, et al. An immunogenic personal neoantigen vaccine for patients with melanoma. Nature. 2017;547:217–21.
Sahin U, Derhovanessian E, Miller M, Kloke BP, Simon P, Lower M, et al. Personalized RNA mutanome vaccines mobilize poly-specific therapeutic immunity against cancer. Nature. 2017;547:222–6.
Yadav M, Jhunjhunwala S, Phung QT, Lupardus P, Tanguay J, Bumbaca S, et al. Predicting immunogenic tumour mutations by combining mass spectrometry and exome sequencing. Nature. 2014;515:572–6.
Warren RL, Choe G, Freeman DJ, Castellarin M, Munro S, Moore R, et al. Derivation of HLA types from shotgun sequence datasets. Genome Med. 2012;4:95.
McLaren W, Gil L, Hunt SE, Riat HS, Ritchie GR, Thormann A, et al. The Ensembl variant effect predictor. Genome Biol. 2016;17:122.
Andreatta M, Nielsen M. Gapped sequence alignment using artificial neural networks: application to the MHC class I system. Bioinformatics. 2016;32:511–7.
Kent WJ, Sugnet CW, Furey TS, Roskin KM, Pringle TH, Zahler AM, et al. The human genome browser at UCSC. Genome Res. 2002;12:996–1006.
Bais P, Namburi S, Gatti DM, Zhang X, Chuang JH. CloudNeo: a cloud pipeline for identifying patient-specific tumor neoantigens. Bioinformatics. 2017;33:3110–2.
Szolek A, Schubert B, Mohr C, Sturm M, Feldhahn M, Kohlbacher O. OptiType: precision HLA typing from next-generation sequencing data. Bioinformatics. 2014;30:3310–6.
Liu C, Yang X, Duffy B, Mohanakumar T, Mitra RD, Zody MC, et al. ATHLATES: accurate typing of human leukocyte antigen through exome sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:e142.
Hundal J, Carreno BM, Petti AA, Linette GP, Griffith OL, Mardis ER, et al. pVAC-Seq: a genome-guided in silico approach to identifying tumor neoantigens. Genome Med. 2016;8:11.
Bjerregaard AM, Nielsen M, Hadrup SR, Szallasi Z, Eklund AC. MuPeXI: prediction of neo-epitopes from tumor sequencing data. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017;66:1123–30.
Saunders CT, Wong WS, Swamy S, Becq J, Murray LJ, Cheetham RK. Strelka: accurate somatic small-variant calling from sequenced tumor-normal sample pairs. Bioinformatics. 2012;28:1811–7.
Kim S, Scheffler K, Halpern AL, Bekritsky MA, Noh E, Kallberg M, et al. Strelka2: fast and accurate calling of germline and somatic variants. Nat Methods. 2018;15:591–4.
Koboldt DC, Zhang Q, Larson DE, Shen D, McLellan MD, Lin L, et al. VarScan 2: somatic mutation and copy number alteration discovery in cancer by exome sequencing. Genome Res. 2012;22:568–76.
Fang LT, Afshar PT, Chhibber A, Mohiyuddin M, Fan Y, Mu JC, et al. An ensemble approach to accurately detect somatic mutations using SomaticSeq. Genome Biol. 2015;16:197.
Kim Y, Sidney J, Pinilla C, Sette A, Peters B. Derivation of an amino acid similarity matrix for peptide: MHC binding and its application as a Bayesian prior. BMC Bioinformatics. 2009;10:394.
Schenck RO, Lakatos E, Gatenbee C, Graham TA, Anderson ARA. NeoPredPipe: high-throughput neoantigen prediction and recognition potential pipeline. BMC Bioinformatics. 2019;20:264.
Nielsen M, Lund O, Buus S, Lundegaard C. MHC class II epitope predictive algorithms. Immunology. 2010;130:319–28.
Butterfield LH. Cancer vaccines. BMJ. 2015;350:h988.
Zahm CD, Colluru VT, McNeel DG. Vaccination with high-affinity epitopes impairs antitumor efficacy by increasing PD-1 expression on CD8(+) T cells. Cancer Immunol Res. 2017;5:630–41.
Mahdavi M, Moreau V, Kheirollahi M. Identification of B and T cell epitope based peptide vaccine from IGF-1 receptor in breast cancer. J Mol Graph Model. 2017;75:316–21.
Blum JS, Wearsch PA, Cresswell P. Pathways of antigen processing. Annu Rev Immunol. 2013;31:443–73.
Coley WB. The treatment of malignant tumors by repeated inoculations of erysipelas. With a report of ten original cases. 1893. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;(262):3–11.
Kugler A, Stuhler G, Walden P, Zoller G, Zobywalski A, Brossart P, et al. Regression of human metastatic renal cell carcinoma after vaccination with tumor cell-dendritic cell hybrids. Nat Med. 2000;6:332–6.
Stone JD, Harris DT, Kranz DM. TCR affinity for p/MHC formed by tumor antigens that are self-proteins: impact on efficacy and toxicity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2015;33:16–22.
Martinez P, McGranahan N, Birkbak NJ, Gerlinger M, Swanton C. Computational optimisation of targeted DNA sequencing for cancer detection. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3309.
Schumacher T, Bunse L, Pusch S, Sahm F, Wiestler B, Quandt J, et al. A vaccine targeting mutant IDH1 induces antitumour immunity. Nature. 2014;512:324–7.
Mo Y, Wang Y, Xiong F, Ge X, Li Z, Li X, et al. Proteomic analysis of the molecular mechanism of lovastatin inhibiting the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. J Cancer. 2019;10:2342–9.
Mo Y, Wang Y, Zhang L, Yang L, Zhou M, Li X, et al. The role of Wnt signaling pathway in tumor metabolic reprogramming. J Cancer. 2019;10:3789–97.
Zhang Y, Xia M, Jin K, Wang S, Wei H, Fan C, et al. Function of the c-met receptor tyrosine kinase in carcinogenesis and associated therapeutic opportunities. Mol Cancer. 2018;17:45.
Inoges S, Tejada S, de Cerio AL, Gallego Perez-Larraya J, Espinos J, Idoate MA, et al. A phase II trial of autologous dendritic cell vaccination and radiochemotherapy following fluorescence-guided surgery in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. J Transl Med. 2017;15:104.
Lilleby W, Gaudernack G, Brunsvig PF, Vlatkovic L, Schulz M, Mills K, et al. Phase I/IIa clinical trial of a novel hTERT peptide vaccine in men with metastatic hormone-naive prostate cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017;66:891–901.
Obara W, Eto M, Mimata H, Kohri K, Mitsuhata N, Miura I, et al. A phase I/II study of cancer peptide vaccine S-288310 in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Ann Oncol. 2017;28:798–803.
Yamasaki S, Miura Y, Davydova J, Vickers SM, Yamamoto M. Intravenous genetic mesothelin vaccine based on human adenovirus 40 inhibits growth and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:88–97.
Filley AC, Dey M. Dendritic cell based vaccination strategy: an evolving paradigm. J Neuro-Oncol. 2017;133:223–35.
Small EJ, Lance RS, Gardner TA, Karsh LI, Fong L, McCoy C, et al. A randomized phase II trial of Sipuleucel-T with concurrent versus sequential Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21:3862–9.
Melero I, Gaudernack G, Gerritsen W, Huber C, Parmiani G, Scholl S, et al. Therapeutic vaccines for cancer: an overview of clinical trials. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2014;11:509–24.
Aleksic M, Liddy N, Molloy PE, Pumphrey N, Vuidepot A, Chang KM, et al. Different affinity windows for virus and cancer-specific T-cell receptors: implications for therapeutic strategies. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:3174–9.
Xing Y, Hogquist KA. T-cell tolerance: central and peripheral. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2012;4:a006957.
Sarma S, Guo Y, Guilloux Y, Lee C, Bai XF, Liu Y. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes to an unmutated tumor rejection antigen P1A: normal development but restrained effector function in vivo. J Exp Med. 1999;189:811–20.
Kreiter S, Castle JC, Tureci O, Sahin U. Targeting the tumor mutanome for personalized vaccination therapy. Oncoimmunology. 2012;1:768–9.
Linnemann C, van Buuren MM, Bies L, Verdegaal EM, Schotte R, Calis JJ, et al. High-throughput epitope discovery reveals frequent recognition of neo-antigens by CD4+ T cells in human melanoma. Nat Med. 2015;21:81–5.
Robbins PF, Lu YC, El-Gamil M, Li YF, Gross C, Gartner J, et al. Mining exomic sequencing data to identify mutated antigens recognized by adoptively transferred tumor-reactive T cells. Nat Med. 2013;19:747–52.
Castle JC, Kreiter S, Diekmann J, Lower M, van de Roemer N, de Graaf J, et al. Exploiting the mutanome for tumor vaccination. Cancer Res. 2012;72:1081–91.
Carreno BM, Magrini V, Becker-Hapak M, Kaabinejadian S, Hundal J, Petti AA, et al. Cancer immunotherapy. A dendritic cell vaccine increases the breadth and diversity of melanoma neoantigen-specific T cells. Science. 2015;348:803–8.
Kreiter S, Selmi A, Diken M, Koslowski M, Britten CM, Huber C, et al. Intranodal vaccination with naked antigen-encoding RNA elicits potent prophylactic and therapeutic antitumoral immunity. Cancer Res. 2010;70:9031–40.
Hilf N, Kuttruff-Coqui S, Frenzel K, Bukur V, Stevanovic S, Gouttefangeas C, et al. Actively personalized vaccination trial for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Nature. 2019;565:240–5.
Keskin DB, Anandappa AJ, Sun J, Tirosh I, Mathewson ND, Li S, et al. Neoantigen vaccine generates intratumoral T cell responses in phase Ib glioblastoma trial. Nature. 2019;565:234–9.
Hanna MG Jr, Hoover HC Jr, Vermorken JB, Harris JE, Pinedo HM. Adjuvant active specific immunotherapy of stage II and stage III colon cancer with an autologous tumor cell vaccine: first randomized phase III trials show promise. Vaccine. 2001;19:2576–82.
Deng X, Xiong F, Li X, Xiang B, Li Z, Wu X, et al. Application of atomic force microscopy in cancer research. J Nanobiotechnol. 2018;16:102.
Fan CM, Wang JP, Tang YY, Zhao J, He SY, Xiong F, et al. circMAN1A2 could serve as a novel serum biomarker for malignant tumors. Cancer Sci. 2019;110:2180–8.
Jin K, Wang S, Zhang Y, Xia M, Mo Y, Li X, et al. Long non-coding RNA PVT1 interacts with MYC and its downstream molecules to synergistically promote tumorigenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019;15:1–5.
Tang Y, He Y, Zhang P, Wang J, Fan C, Yang L, et al. LncRNAs regulate the cytoskeleton and related rho/ROCK signaling in cancer metastasis. Mol Cancer. 2018;17:77.
Wang M, Zhao J, Zhang L, Wei F, Lian Y, Wu Y, et al. Role of tumor microenvironment in tumorigenesis. J Cancer. 2017;8:761–73.
Wei F, Wu Y, Tang L, He Y, Shi L, Xiong F, et al. BPIFB1 (LPLUNC1) inhibits migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by interacting with VTN and VIM. Br J Cancer. 2018;118:233–47.
Wu Y, Wei F, Tang L, Liao Q, Wang H, Shi L, et al. Herpesvirus acts with the cytoskeleton and promotes cancer progression. J Cancer. 2019;10:2185–93.
Xia M, Zhang Y, Jin K, Lu Z, Zeng Z, Xiong W. Communication between mitochondria and other organelles: a brand-new perspective on mitochondria in cancer. Cell Biosci. 2019;9:27.
Jiang X, Wang J, Deng X, Xiong F, Ge J, Xiang B, et al. Role of the tumor microenvironment in PD-L1/PD-1-mediated tumor immune escape. Mol Cancer. 2019;18:10.
Dong H, Strome SE, Salomao DR, Tamura H, Hirano F, Flies DB, et al. Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: a potential mechanism of immune evasion. Nat Med. 2002;8:793–800.
Spranger S, Spaapen RM, Zha Y, Williams J, Meng Y, Ha TT, et al. Up-regulation of PD-L1, IDO, and T (regs) in the melanoma tumor microenvironment is driven by CD8(+) T cells. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5:200ra116.
Taube JM, Anders RA, Young GD, Xu H, Sharma R, McMiller TL, et al. Colocalization of inflammatory response with B7-h1 expression in human melanocytic lesions supports an adaptive resistance mechanism of immune escape. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4:127ra37.
Chen L, Han X. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy of human cancer: past, present, and future. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:3384–91.
Rekoske BT, Smith HA, Olson BM, Maricque BB, McNeel DG. PD-1 or PD-L1 blockade restores antitumor efficacy following SSX2 epitope-modified DNA vaccine immunization. Cancer Immunol Res. 2015;3:946–55.
Soares KC, Rucki AA, Wu AA, Olino K, Xiao Q, Chai Y, et al. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade together with vaccine therapy facilitates effector T-cell infiltration into pancreatic tumors. J Immunother. 2015;38:1.
Pardoll DM. The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer. 2012;12:252–64.
Hodi FS, O'Day SJ, McDermott DF, Weber RW, Sosman JA, Haanen JB, et al. Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:711–23.
Topalian SL, Hodi FS, Brahmer JR, Gettinger SN, Smith DC, McDermott DF, et al. Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:2443–54.
Brahmer JR, Tykodi SS, Chow LQ, Hwu WJ, Topalian SL, Hwu P, et al. Safety and activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody in patients with advanced cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:2455–65.
Wolchok JD, Kluger H, Callahan MK, Postow MA, Rizvi NA, Lesokhin AM, et al. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:122–33.
Le DT, Durham JN, Smith KN, Wang H, Bartlett BR, Aulakh LK, et al. Mismatch repair deficiency predicts response of solid tumors to PD-1 blockade. Science. 2017;357:409–13.
Naidoo J, Page DB, Li BT, Connell LC, Schindler K, Lacouture ME, et al. Toxicities of the anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint antibodies. Ann Oncol. 2015;26:2375–91.
Smyth MJ, Ngiow SF, Ribas A, Teng MW. Combination cancer immunotherapies tailored to the tumour microenvironment. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2016;13:143–58.
Ali OA, Lewin SA, Dranoff G, Mooney DJ. Vaccines combined with immune checkpoint antibodies promote cytotoxic T-cell activity and tumor eradication. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016;4:95–100.
Karyampudi L, Lamichhane P, Scheid AD, Kalli KR, Shreeder B, Krempski JW, et al. Accumulation of memory precursor CD8 T cells in regressing tumors following combination therapy with vaccine and anti-PD-1 antibody. Cancer Res. 2014;74:2974–85.
Curran MA, Montalvo W, Yagita H, Allison JP. PD-1 and CTLA-4 combination blockade expands infiltrating T cells and reduces regulatory T and myeloid cells within B16 melanoma tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4275–80.
Leisegang M, Engels B, Schreiber K, Yew PY, Kiyotani K, Idel C, et al. Eradication of large solid tumors by gene therapy with a T-cell receptor targeting a single Cancer-specific point mutation. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:2734–43.
Liu Y. Neoantigen: a Long march toward Cancer immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:2602–4.
Tran E, Turcotte S, Gros A, Robbins PF, Lu YC, Dudley ME, et al. Cancer immunotherapy based on mutation-specific CD4+ T cells in a patient with epithelial cancer. Science. 2014;344:641–5.
Liu S, Matsuzaki J, Wei L, Tsuji T, Battaglia S, Hu Q, et al. Efficient identification of neoantigen-specific T-cell responses in advanced human ovarian cancer. J Immunother Cancer. 2019;7:156.
Ma L, Dichwalkar T, Chang JYH, Cossette B, Garafola D, Zhang AQ, et al. Enhanced CAR-T cell activity against solid tumors by vaccine boosting through the chimeric receptor. Science. 2019;365:162–8.
Bakdash G, Buschow SI, Gorris MA, Halilovic A, Hato SV, Skold AE, et al. Expansion of a BDCA1+CD14+ myeloid cell population in melanoma patients may attenuate the efficacy of dendritic cell vaccines. Cancer Res. 2016;76:4332–46.
Klages K, Mayer CT, Lahl K, Loddenkemper C, Teng MW, Ngiow SF, et al. Selective depletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells improves effective therapeutic vaccination against established melanoma. Cancer Res. 2010;70:7788–99.
Casares N, Rudilla F, Arribillaga L, Llopiz D, Riezu-Boj JI, Lozano T, et al. A peptide inhibitor of FOXP3 impairs regulatory T cell activity and improves vaccine efficacy in mice. J Immunol. 2010;185:5150–9.
Lozano T, Gorraiz M, Lasarte-Cia A, Ruiz M, Rabal O, Oyarzabal J, et al. Blockage of FOXP3 transcription factor dimerization and FOXP3/AML1 interaction inhibits T regulatory cell activity: sequence optimization of a peptide inhibitor. Oncotarget. 2017;8:71709–24.
Eil R, Vodnala SK, Clever D, Klebanoff CA, Sukumar M, Pan JH, et al. Ionic immune suppression within the tumour microenvironment limits T cell effector function. Nature. 2016;537:539–43.
Zhang B, Bowerman NA, Salama JK, Schmidt H, Spiotto MT, Schietinger A, et al. Induced sensitization of tumor stroma leads to eradication of established cancer by T cells. J Exp Med. 2007;204:49–55.
Lugade AA, Moran JP, Gerber SA, Rose RC, Frelinger JG, Lord EM. Local radiation therapy of B16 melanoma tumors increases the generation of tumor antigen-specific effector cells that traffic to the tumor. J Immunol. 2005;174:7516–23.
Greenberg PD, Cheever MA. Treatment of disseminated leukemia with cyclophosphamide and immune cells: tumor immunity reflects long-term persistence of tumor-specific donor T cells. J Immunol. 1984;133:3401–7.
Proietti E, Greco G, Garrone B, Baccarini S, Mauri C, Venditti M, et al. Importance of cyclophosphamide-induced bystander effect on T cells for a successful tumor eradication in response to adoptive immunotherapy in mice. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:429–41.
Manthey CL, Perera PY, Salkowski CA, Vogel SN. Taxol provides a second signal for murine macrophage tumoricidal activity. J Immunol. 1994;152:825–31.
Berd D, Maguire HC Jr, Mastrangelo MJ. Induction of cell-mediated immunity to autologous melanoma cells and regression of metastases after treatment with a melanoma cell vaccine preceded by cyclophosphamide. Cancer Res. 1986;46:2572–7.
Nigam A, Yacavone RF, Zahurak ML, Johns CM, Pardoll DM, Piantadosi S, et al. Immunomodulatory properties of antineoplastic drugs administered in conjunction with GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines. Int J Oncol. 1998;12:161–70.
Machiels JP, Reilly RT, Emens LA, Ercolini AM, Lei RY, Weintraub D, et al. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel enhance the antitumor immune response of granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor-secreting whole-cell vaccines in HER-2/neu tolerized mice. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3689–97.
Ye Z, Li Z, Jin H, Qian Q. Therapeutic Cancer vaccines. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;909:139–67.
Anagnostou VK, Brahmer JR. Cancer immunotherapy: a future paradigm shift in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21:976–84.
Melief CJ, van Hall T, Arens R, Ossendorp F, van der Burg SH. Therapeutic cancer vaccines. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:3401–12.
de Bruin EC, McGranahan N, Mitter R, Salm M, Wedge DC, Yates L, et al. Spatial and temporal diversity in genomic instability processes defines lung cancer evolution. Science. 2014;346:251–6.
Gerlinger M, Horswell S, Larkin J, Rowan AJ, Salm MP, Varela I, et al. Genomic architecture and evolution of clear cell renal cell carcinomas defined by multiregion sequencing. Nat Genet. 2014;46:225–33.
McGranahan N, Favero F, de Bruin EC, Birkbak NJ, Szallasi Z, Swanton C. Clonal status of actionable driver events and the timing of mutational processes in cancer evolution. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7:283ra54.
Rooney MS, Shukla SA, Wu CJ, Getz G, Hacohen N. Molecular and genetic properties of tumors associated with local immune cytolytic activity. Cell. 2015;160:48–61.
Kristensen VN. The antigenicity of the tumor cell - context matters. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:491–3.
Dai W, Zheng H, Cheung AK, Lung ML. Genetic and epigenetic landscape of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Chin Clin Oncol. 2016;5:16.
Ali SM, Yao M, Yao J, Wang J, Cheng Y, Schrock AB, et al. Comprehensive genomic profiling of different subtypes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma reveals similarities and differences to guide targeted therapy. Cancer. 2017;123:3628–37.
Zamora AE, Crawford JC, Allen EK, Guo XJ, Bakke J, Carter RA, et al. Pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia generate abundant and functional neoantigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. Sci Transl Med. 2019;11:eaat8549.
Parkhurst MR, Robbins PF, Tran E, Prickett TD, Gartner JJ, Jia L, et al. Unique Neoantigens Arise from Somatic Mutations in Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancers. Cancer Discov. 2019;9(8):1022–35.
Tran E, Robbins PF, Rosenberg SA. ‘Final common pathway’ of human cancer immunotherapy: targeting random somatic mutations. Nat Immunol. 2017;18:255–62.
Forbes SA, Beare D, Gunasekaran P, Leung K, Bindal N, Boutselakis H, et al. COSMIC: exploring the world's knowledge of somatic mutations in human cancer. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:D805–11.
Laumont CM, Vincent K, Hesnard L, Audemard É, Bonneil É, Laverdure J-P, et al. Noncoding regions are the main source of targetable tumor-specific antigens. Sci Transl Med. 2018;10:eaau5516.
Gee MH, Han A, Lofgren SM, Beausang JF, Mendoza JL, Birnbaum ME, et al. Antigen identification for orphan T cell receptors expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Cell. 2018;172:549–63 e16.
Probst P, Kopp J, Oxenius A, Colombo MP, Ritz D, Fugmann T, et al. Sarcoma eradication by doxorubicin and targeted TNF relies upon CD8(+) T-cell recognition of a retroviral antigen. Cancer Res. 2017;77:3644–54.
Tran E, Robbins PF, Lu YC, Prickett TD, Gartner JJ, Jia L, et al. T-cell transfer therapy targeting mutant KRAS in Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:2255–62.
Fan C, Tang Y, Wang J, Xiong F, Guo C, Wang Y, et al. Role of long non-coding RNAs in glucose metabolism in cancer. Mol Cancer. 2017;16:130.
Ali M, Foldvari Z, Giannakopoulou E, Boschen ML, Stronen E, Yang W, et al. Induction of neoantigen-reactive T cells from healthy donors. Nat Protoc. 2019;14:1926–43.
Caron E, Aebersold R, Banaei-Esfahani A, Chong C, Bassani-Sternberg M. A case for a human Immuno-Peptidome project consortium. Immunity. 2017;47:203–8.